Flashcards in Import and Export from the Nucleus Deck (17)
Name at least 8 types of molecules that are imported and exported from the nucleus
Protein kinases/ phosphates
RNA binding proteins
60s and 40s Ribosomal subunits
RNA binding proteins
What are the 3 layers of the Nuclear pore complex (NPC)?
Cytoplasm -> barrier layer -> scaffold layer -> membrane layer -> nucleus
What distinct proteins help to form the subcomplexes of NPCs?
What feature helps proteins enter neucleus?
Ability to interact with FG repeat -> bind and gradually move into cell
What are the two important types of karyopherin import receptors?
karyopherin Beta (beta-importin - cargo specific)
heterodimeric import receptors (Alpha and beta importins - work together to bring in proteins)
Where is RanGTP located? RanGDP?
What happens when an importin bound to its cargo encounters RanGTP?
What is required fro exportins to bind their cargo?
What are the targeting signals for molecules bound in or out of the nucleus?
In: Nuclear localization signal NLS
Out: Nuclear export signal NES
What types of pathological conditions can nuclear trafficking defects cause?
neurodegenerative disease (AD & ALS)
What pathology does human Nup 155 cause?
AF -> cardiac disorder characerized by clinical arrhythmia
What pathology does human Nup 62 cause?
Autosomal recessive infantile bilateral striatal necrosis (degeneration of basal ganglia
What pathology does human Nup 358/ RanBP2 cause?
familial cases of infection acute necrotizing encephalophathy
What pathology does human Nup88 cause?
breast and ovaian cancers
Name at least 3 mechanisms of regulating nuclear transport
stimulation dependent nucleocytoplasmic transport
- binding on surface of cell triggers/ inhibits import/export
- fold protein so NES/NLS not visible
- bind to substrate that conceals NLS/NES
- add cofactors to increase binding affinity
binding to cytoskeleton
binding to chromatin
How does male to female sex reversal occur?
when mutates SRY region cannot enter nucleus -> cannot initiate transcription of male genes