Flashcards in Inca Deck (102):
What were the 4 Andean geographical regions?
Costa, Sierra, Puna, Selva
What do sites like Huaca Prieta and Ancón tell us about coastal subsistence?
They were very dependent on the high concentration of fish and shellfish on the coast. At these sites they found large quantities of shells.
Agriculture in the coastal zone produced cotton and gourds. What were these products used for?
Cotton was used for fishing nets, while gourds were used as containers
Corn was carried to the coast from the highlands by llama caravans and transformed into:
What kinds of ceremonial architecture were constructed on the coast of Peru during the Archaic?
They practiced rituals in circular sunken courts, at men's houses and pyramidal mounds
What crops were grown agriculturally in the highlands?
Cotton, quinoa and potatoes
What were llamas domesticated for?
They were used as beasts of burden
What were alpacas domesticated for?
They provided incredibly soft wool
What was the Quechua name for Guinea Pigs?
What were the two types of wild camelid species?
Guanaco and Vicuña
What kind of deer species existed in the Andes?
Huemal deer (taruka)
What are pachamancas?
Earth ovens used for cooking in the Archaic period
Men's houses at La Galgada were later covered by what?
They were covered with elevated temples that were the focus of large, public rituals integrating the whole community
What surrounded the main temples at the site of Cerro Sechín?
Stone carvings of victorious warriors and mutilated captives.
How did the builders of Cerro Sechín use natural topography to their advantage?
They built on a small natural hill/outcrop
Cerro Sechín eventually became part of a larger chiefdom, Sechín Alto. What kind of ceremonial architecture did this larger chiefdom include?
Platforms, pyramids, and circular sunken courts
What was advantageous about Chavín de Huántar's particular location?
They were located on a route from the coast to the jungle, so llama caravan traffic went through their site
Iconography on stone stelae and pottery at Chavin de Huántar feature what animals?
Jaguars, caymans, serpents, condors, and eagles. Really any animal that was seen as a great fighter
What sumptuary goods were found at Chavín de Huántar?
Gold, silver and copper
How do these items in Peru compare to sumptuary goods in Mexico?
They did not have jade in Peru
What lead to the formation of the Moche state?
Conflict between coastal groups and highland invaders
Where did the Moche state arise?
The Moche Valley
After state formation, where did the Moche expand?
They expanded up the northern coast
What were the names of the two pyramids at the Moche State?
Huacas del Sol and Huacas de la Luna
What were the pyramids at the Moche State made of?
What tells us that organized labor gangs (corvée labor) built the pyramids at the Capital of the Moche State?
Each adobe brick had a distinctive makers mark
Who and what was buried with a Moche ruler at the Royal Tombs of Sipán?
Royal family members, perhaps a ruler's wife and people sacrificed at the ruler's funeral. They were also buried with fine-line ceramics and sumptuary goods
What were ruler's coffins at the Royal Tombs of Sipán made of?
Who was buried at San José de Moro?
The priestesses of Moro
What do we learn about Moche ceremonies from tombs at San José de Moro?
They used a goblet to collect blood used in ritualistic bloodletting. This goblet was buried with the priestess
Where else do we see representations of Moche ceremonies?
What evidence is there for specialized craft production?
We can see the specialization in the elaborate fine-line ceramics, gold and silver with turquoise inlays, and textiles
When did the Moche State exist?
AD 200 - 800
When did Formative Chiefdoms exist?
1600 - 200 BC
When was the Archaic Period?
8000 - 1800 BC
Where did the Wari State originate? Where did it expand?
It originated in Peru, spreading out north of Lake Titicaca
The Wari capital included rectangular compounds that may have housed ____
Agricultural terraces and irrigation canals surrounded the capital to intensify production of what crop? Why?
Corn to grow for chicha
Wari buildings at the capital and in the provinces were built with ____ laborers (labor tribute)
The Wari were the first to use ____ (knotted cords to keep count of items)
Where did the the Tiwanaku State originate? Where did it expand?
It originated in Bolivia, spreading out south of Lake Titicaca
Describe the characteristic architectural style developed by Tiwanaku
They used stones that were very tightly fitted together with required no mortar
How could you characterize the relationship between Tiwanaku and Wari?
They had a diplomatic relationship, like that of Monte Alban and Teotihuacan in Mexico
What is monument capture and what did it symbolize?
It was taking monuments from other sites that Tiwanaku had captured, and erecting them at Tiwanaku to symbolize the conquest of these other areas
What did the Inca adopted that originally came from the Wari?
Allyu, agriculture terraces, mit'a (which may have dated back to the Moche) and quipu
What did the Inca adopted that originally came from the Tiwanaku?
Tight-fitting stone architecture and monument capture
What did the Inca adopted that originally came from both the Wari and Tiwanaku?
Imperial roads, large feasts involving chicha drinking
What was the Chimu capital?
What Chimu practice dictated that the heir of to the throne had to build his own palace and conquer his own territory after the death of a ruler
What are audiencias?
Chimu administrative offices: u-shaped structures were manned by officials who kept track of the comings-and-goings of traders and other people at royal compounds
When were the Chimu conquered? By whom?
AD 1450-1470 by the Inca Empire
At Cerro Azul, where did elites live?
Where did commoners live?
In wattle and daub houses
Like most other ancient Andean people, the people at Cerro Azul consumed chicha. In an elite residence at the site, Dr. Marcus and Dr. Flannery found a ___
giant brewery for chicha
When did the Inca empire first arise? Where?
The Andean Highlands between AD 1000-1400
What was the capital of the Inca empire?
What did the Inca name their empire? What did it mean?
They called it Tawantinsuyu, meaning "the four regions"
What was the largest empire in the Americas?
The Inca Empire
Who were the mamakuna?
Women labor class
Who were the yanakuna?
Men labor class
Who were the mitmaqkuna?
Communities/colonies of laborers
How does the Inca economy differ significantly from that of the Aztec?
Unlike Mexican empires, the Inca wanted tribute in labor, not goods.
What was the saqsayhuaman?
A fortress above Cuzco
What was the huacapayta plaza?
A gathering place for harvest/planting ceremonies, display of captured monuments, etc
What was Huanaco Pampa?
The Inca administrative center that was built from scratch with a massive plaza for assembling together large groups of diverse people for ceremonies and parties
What does Machu Picchu literally mean
What were some of the honorific titles for the Inca emperor?
The Unique Inca, The Son of the Sun, The Lover of the Poor
What are "ceque" lines?
Lines that marked pilgrimage routes radiating out from Cuzco
Which appeared first on the Peruvian coast, pottery or ceremonial architecture?
Ceremonial architecture, in the form of circular sunken courtyards
What was the role of corn in early Andean cultures?
It was used to make corn beer (chicha), but was not a staple food like it was in Mexico
Name three animals that were domesticated in the Peruvian highlands
Llama, Alpaca, Guinea pig (Cuy)
What did Cerro Sechín and Monte Albán in Mexico have in common?
They displayed carvings of mutilated captives, and they both used natural hills to increase the impression of monumentality
At the highland site of La Galgada, white-plastered men's houses were later replaced by temples on platforms. At what Central Mexican site did we see the same pattern?
San Jose Mogote (Valley of Oaxaca)
At which chiefly site drew wealth from pilgrims to consult an oracle in order to finance their ceremonial architecture and art program?
Chavin de Huantar (Chavin). The rich art and architecture at Chavin featured fearsome predatory animals like caimans, harpy eagles, spiders, and jaguars
What state was Cerro Bául a colony of?
It was a Wari Outpost
Where was Cerro Bául located?
It was built on top of a mountain in the Moquegua valley
What happened to Cerro Bául when it was abandoned?
Its occupants threw a large party then burned it to the ground
This expansive empire arose in the Moche Valley, the same valley where the earlier Moche Culture originated
What was commonly eaten by coastal Archaic people?
Fish, clam and mussels
What was the name of the traditional clan-like Andean communities, which may originate with the Wari?
How did armed conflict accompany the rise of the Moche State?
Coastal chiefdoms fought back against raiding and conquest from highlanders. These coastal people then conquered large areas along the north coast of Peru
What are some qualities and features of Moche Rulers?
People were sacrificed and dismembered at rulers funerals
Rulers likely practiced polygamy
Rulers could be buried in (expensive) wooden coffins
Rulers are depicted in Moche art, such as finalize ceramics and portrait vessels
Rulers were buried with gold, silver, and copper ornaments, as well as ceramics, food and other offerings
Why did the most ambitious irrigation project of the Chimu ultimately fail?
Earthquakes along the coast lead to continental uplift
What site features elite burials accompanied by sacrificial victims, some dismembered, others possibly wives or family members?
The Royal Tombs of Sipan
Name the Chimu institution that encouraged new rulers to conquer new territory when they assumed power
(The dead ruler's land and household still belonged to him and were maintained after his death. The new ruler had to conquer his own lands and build his own palace at the Chimu capital, Chan Chan)
What Andean states had an analogous relationship to that between Monte Alban and Teotihuacan
Wari and Tiwanaku
While Andeans polities lacked writing, the Wari introduce this counting/accounting tool, later used by the Inca
What architectural tradition did Tiwanaku contribute to the Inca?
Tight-fitting masonry (with no mortar)
What is the only state we studied that originated in Bolivia, not Peru
What is "monument capture", and how was it used as political strategy by Tiwanaku?
To capture monuments from other sites, erect them at your capital, and whip them to symbolize the capture of your opponent
What empire was larger (in geographic size) - The Aztec or the Inca?
What is mit'a?
Labor tribute; it was used by the Inca and their predecessors, and may have originated with the Moche
What Mexican culture that we studied also kept bundled remains of their rulers, like the Inca rulers?
Which coastal empire did the Inca conquer around 1450
The Kingdom of Chimor/The Chimu
What were some of the honorific titles given to the Inca emperor?
The Unique Inca, The Son of the Sun, The Lover of the Poor
What were the 1st Gen States of Peru? Where were they located?
Moche - northern Peruvian coast (Moche Valley)
Nazca - souther Peruvian coast (Nasca Valley)
What were the 2nd Gen States of Peru? Where were they located?
Wari (or Huari) - central Peruvian Highlands
Tiwanaku - Bolivia near Lake Titicaca
What were the 3rd Gen States of Peru? Where were they located?
Chimú (or Chimor) - northern Peruvian coast (Moche Valley)
Huarco (or Guarco/Warku) - southern Peruvian coast (Cañete Valley)
What is unique about the Huarco state?
It was the only non-expansionist state. They specialized in marine resources
What was the 4th Gen State of Peru? Where were they located?
Inka (or Inca) - central Peruvian highlands (Cusco)
What was the capital of the Huarco state?