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Anthropological Archaeology 284 > Maya > Flashcards

Flashcards in Maya Deck (81)
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1

What was the Northern Lowland landscape like?

There were no rivers or streams. Instead, there were natural wells used as a source of water called cenotes. This is where the Yucatan Peninsula was, with a thin layer of topsoil with limestone underneath.

2

What natural resources and commodities were found in the Northern Lowlands?

Limestone was used for construction of various things. Flint was used to make tools. They burned limestone to make quicklime to make mortar and plaster. They made salt and grew cotton and raised stingless bees

3

What was the Southern lowland landscape like?

It was thick jungle. It was wetter and hillier. There were also actual lakes, swamps and rivers.

4

What natural resources and commodities were found in the Southern Lowlands?

There was a source of copal resin (used for pom incense), chocolate, jaguar pelts, Quetzalcoatl feathers

5

What was the Maya Highlands landscape like?

It had a high plateau region with mountains of volcanic origin

6

What natural resources and commodities were found in the Maya highlands?

It was a source of volcanic stone (basalt and obsidian) and jade

7

Most of our data on the Archaic Maya comes from sites in this Central American country

Guatemala

8

People in the Archaic lived in ___ societies

Egalitarian

9

What style of living did the Archaic people have?

Nomadic

10

How did they get food?

Hunting and gathering

11

When was the Formative period?

1500BC - AD 150

12

When was the EARLY Formative

1500 - 800 BC

13

What was a major lifestyle change that occurred during the early formative period

People started living in villages and making pottery

14

What were the three most common animals eaten by Early Formative villages?

Deer, turtle and dog

15

What were early Maya houses made of?

They were built of cane and thatch. Commoners lived in houses like this throughout the entire Maya sequence

16

What did archaeologists find under many house floors

Dedicatory caches

17

What did dedicatory caches serve to do?

Animate and bring life to the house

18

What kind of drink and objects were used in Early Formative ritual?

Drink used in ritual included a cacao drink. Rituals were concentrated in households including scenes created with figures that represented ancestors

19

When did the MIDDLE Formative period occur?

800-400 BC

20

When did the LATE Formative period occur?

400 BC - AD 150

21

What were minimal chiefdoms?

Less complex chiefdoms that had a two tiered hierarchy

22

Examples of minimal chiefdoms

Blackman Eddy, K'Axob, Cuello

23

What were maximal chiefdoms?

More complex chiefdoms that had a three tiered hierachy

24

Examples of maximal chiefdoms

Nakbe, El Mirador

25

What kind of interaction existed between Maya chiefdoms?

Constant competition (both internally and externally) and warfare

26

What kind of archaeological evidence is there for chiefly warfare

Mass burials, defaced masks on temples, and fortification ditches/moats (version of a palisade)

27

What is the evidence of a ranked society that we see in burials at K'axob

Similar to patterns in formative Oaxaca burials reveal some men receive special mortuary treatment (high status). Infants buried with special artifacts that clearly could not have inherited these goods through their achievement

28

Where did Maximal Chiefdoms first arise?

The Mirador Basin

29

What is an E-Group?

An architectural observatory. Three small temples on a plaza that the equinoxes and solstices could be viewed from a small temple a little further away. They had a great interest in astronomy

30

When did El Mirador peak in power?

400 BC - AD 100