Flashcards in Maya Deck (81)
What was the Northern Lowland landscape like?
There were no rivers or streams. Instead, there were natural wells used as a source of water called cenotes. This is where the Yucatan Peninsula was, with a thin layer of topsoil with limestone underneath.
What natural resources and commodities were found in the Northern Lowlands?
Limestone was used for construction of various things. Flint was used to make tools. They burned limestone to make quicklime to make mortar and plaster. They made salt and grew cotton and raised stingless bees
What was the Southern lowland landscape like?
It was thick jungle. It was wetter and hillier. There were also actual lakes, swamps and rivers.
What natural resources and commodities were found in the Southern Lowlands?
There was a source of copal resin (used for pom incense), chocolate, jaguar pelts, Quetzalcoatl feathers
What was the Maya Highlands landscape like?
It had a high plateau region with mountains of volcanic origin
What natural resources and commodities were found in the Maya highlands?
It was a source of volcanic stone (basalt and obsidian) and jade
Most of our data on the Archaic Maya comes from sites in this Central American country
People in the Archaic lived in ___ societies
What style of living did the Archaic people have?
How did they get food?
Hunting and gathering
When was the Formative period?
1500BC - AD 150
When was the EARLY Formative
1500 - 800 BC
What was a major lifestyle change that occurred during the early formative period
People started living in villages and making pottery
What were the three most common animals eaten by Early Formative villages?
Deer, turtle and dog
What were early Maya houses made of?
They were built of cane and thatch. Commoners lived in houses like this throughout the entire Maya sequence
What did archaeologists find under many house floors
What did dedicatory caches serve to do?
Animate and bring life to the house
What kind of drink and objects were used in Early Formative ritual?
Drink used in ritual included a cacao drink. Rituals were concentrated in households including scenes created with figures that represented ancestors
When did the MIDDLE Formative period occur?
When did the LATE Formative period occur?
400 BC - AD 150
What were minimal chiefdoms?
Less complex chiefdoms that had a two tiered hierarchy
Examples of minimal chiefdoms
Blackman Eddy, K'Axob, Cuello
What were maximal chiefdoms?
More complex chiefdoms that had a three tiered hierachy
Examples of maximal chiefdoms
Nakbe, El Mirador
What kind of interaction existed between Maya chiefdoms?
Constant competition (both internally and externally) and warfare
What kind of archaeological evidence is there for chiefly warfare
Mass burials, defaced masks on temples, and fortification ditches/moats (version of a palisade)
What is the evidence of a ranked society that we see in burials at K'axob
Similar to patterns in formative Oaxaca burials reveal some men receive special mortuary treatment (high status). Infants buried with special artifacts that clearly could not have inherited these goods through their achievement
Where did Maximal Chiefdoms first arise?
The Mirador Basin
What is an E-Group?
An architectural observatory. Three small temples on a plaza that the equinoxes and solstices could be viewed from a small temple a little further away. They had a great interest in astronomy