Flashcards in Infectious Diseases Deck (93)
Outline the criteria for SIRS
2 or more of
Temperature above 38 or below 36
Heart rate above 90
Resp rate above 20 or PaCO2 below 32
WCC over 12k or below 4k
Hyperglycaemia in absence of diabetes
Confirmed SIRS and suspected/present infection
Define "severe sepsis"
Sepsis with organ dysfunction
Give examples of evidence of organ dysfunction in severe sepsis
Define "septic shock"
Arterial hypotension (systolic below 90, mean below 65) for 1 hour despite fluid resuscitation
Lactate above 4
What is the definition of pyrexia of unknown origin?
Temperature above 38.3 for more than 3 weeks with no obvious cause
Suggest some causes of pyrexia of unknown origin
CTD's (Marfan's, EDS)
List some investigations you would do in pyrexia of unknown origin
FBC, U+E, albumin
What is nosocomial fever?
Temperature above 38 occurring 48h after hospital admission, usually as a result of environmental exposure or medical intervention
List causes of nosocomial fever
Risk factors (alcoholism, CVD, faecal incontinence, ulcers, indwelling catheters, malignancy, procedures)
Infection (UTI, pneumonia, skin, prosthesis, AIDS)
Inflammation (vasculitis, aspiration, autoimmunity, drugs)
Ischaemia (MI, stroke, PE, bowel obstruction)
Which organisms cause malaria?
List some symptoms and signs of malaria
Sweating for hours
How is malaria investigated?
Serial thin + thick blood film
Outline treatment for malaria
Prophylaxis for travellers
Which organism causes typhoid? How is it spread?
List some symptoms and signs of typhoid
How is typhoid investigated?
Blood/bone marrow culture
Outline treatment for typhoid
Fluid replacement and nutrition
Which organism causes dysentry? How is it spread?
List some symptoms and signs of dysentry
How is dysentry investigated?
Which organism causes cholera? How is it spread?
List symptoms and signs of cholera
Profuse "ricewater" stools
How is cholera investigated?
Stool culture and microscopy
Outline treatment of cholera
List some common signs of tropical infections and suggest diseases behind them
Jaundice (hepatitis, liver abscess, yellow fever)
Erythema nodosum (sarcoid, TB, Strep)
Suggest sources of infection of the following organisms that cause gastroenteritis:
E. coli 0157
Staph aureus (meat)
Bacillus cereus (rice)
Salmonella (poultry, dairy)
Clostridium perfringens (meat)
E. coli 0157 (raw meet)
Which of the hepatitis viruses are DNA and which are RNA?
A, C, D and E are RNA viruses
B is DNA virus
How is hepatitis A spread?