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Flashcards in Infectious Diseases Deck (93)
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1

Outline the criteria for SIRS

2 or more of
Temperature above 38 or below 36
Heart rate above 90
Resp rate above 20 or PaCO2 below 32
WCC over 12k or below 4k
Hyperglycaemia in absence of diabetes

2

Define "sepsis"

Confirmed SIRS and suspected/present infection

3

Define "severe sepsis"

Sepsis with organ dysfunction

4

Give examples of evidence of organ dysfunction in severe sepsis

Arterial hypoxaemia
Oliguria
Thrombocytopenia
Hypotension
Raised Cr
Raised lactate

5

Define "septic shock"

Arterial hypotension (systolic below 90, mean below 65) for 1 hour despite fluid resuscitation
Lactate above 4

6

What is the definition of pyrexia of unknown origin?

Temperature above 38.3 for more than 3 weeks with no obvious cause

7

Suggest some causes of pyrexia of unknown origin

CTD's (Marfan's, EDS)
Rheumatoid arthritis
PMR
Tumours
Drugs
PE
IBD

8

List some investigations you would do in pyrexia of unknown origin

FBC, U+E, albumin
Renal function
CXR
Immunology (antibodies)

9

What is nosocomial fever?

Temperature above 38 occurring 48h after hospital admission, usually as a result of environmental exposure or medical intervention

10

List causes of nosocomial fever

Risk factors (alcoholism, CVD, faecal incontinence, ulcers, indwelling catheters, malignancy, procedures)
Infection (UTI, pneumonia, skin, prosthesis, AIDS)
Inflammation (vasculitis, aspiration, autoimmunity, drugs)
Ischaemia (MI, stroke, PE, bowel obstruction)

11

Which organisms cause malaria?

P vivax
P ovale
P malare
P falciparum

12

List some symptoms and signs of malaria

Fever
Rigors
Headache
Dizziness
Jaundice
Flushed
Sweating for hours
Anaemia

13

How is malaria investigated?

Serial thin + thick blood film
FBC

14

Outline treatment for malaria

Chloroquine
Primaquine
Prophylaxis for travellers

15

Which organism causes typhoid? How is it spread?

Salmonella typhi
Faeco-oral

16

List some symptoms and signs of typhoid

Malaise
High fever
Bradycardia
Cough
Constipation
Abdo pain

17

How is typhoid investigated?

Blood/bone marrow culture
LFT's

18

Outline treatment for typhoid

Fluid replacement and nutrition
Ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone

19

Which organism causes dysentry? How is it spread?

Shigella
Faeco-oral

20

List some symptoms and signs of dysentry

Abdo pain
Bloody diarrhoea
Sudden fever
Headache
Neck stiffness

21

How is dysentry investigated?

Stool culture

22

Which organism causes cholera? How is it spread?

Vibrio cholerae
Faeco-oral

23

List symptoms and signs of cholera

Profuse "ricewater" stools
Fever
Vomiting
Rapid dehydration

24

How is cholera investigated?

Stool culture and microscopy

25

Outline treatment of cholera

Sachet rehydration
Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin
Barrier nursing

26

List some common signs of tropical infections and suggest diseases behind them

Jaundice (hepatitis, liver abscess, yellow fever)
Diarrhoea, vomiting
Erythema nodosum (sarcoid, TB, Strep)
Itch (scabies)
Ulcers/nodules (leishmaniasis)

27

Suggest sources of infection of the following organisms that cause gastroenteritis:
Staph aureus
Bacillus cereus
Salmonella
Clostridium perfringens
Campylobacter
Listeria
E. coli 0157
Cryptosporidium

Staph aureus (meat)
Bacillus cereus (rice)
Salmonella (poultry, dairy)
Clostridium perfringens (meat)
Campylobacter (poultry)
Listeria (cheese)
E. coli 0157 (raw meet)
Cryptosporidium (cows)

28

Which of the hepatitis viruses are DNA and which are RNA?

A, C, D and E are RNA viruses
B is DNA virus

29

How is hepatitis A spread?

Faeco-oral
Travellers
Institutions (workplaces)

30

List some symptoms and signs of hepatitis A

Fever
Jaundice
Malaise
Arthralgia
Anorexia
Nausea