Ophthalmology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ophthalmology Deck (147)
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1

What makes up the uvea?

Iris
Ciliary body
Choroid

2

What does a miotic agent do? Give an example of one

Miotics constrict the pupil
Pilocarpine

3

What does a mydriatic agent do? Give an example of one

Mydriatics dilate the pupil
Tropicamide

4

What is a stye?

Inflammatory lid swelling
Non-specific term - may be transient or infectious

5

What is hordeolum externum?

Abscess/infection present in lash follicle
May involve sweat/sebum glands, usually points outwards

6

What is a chalazion?

Residual non-infectious lid swelling that occurs due to blockage of Meibomian gland

7

Outline management of stye and other lid swellings

Warm compresses
Topical antibiotics (fusidic acid)
Incision and curettage

8

What is blepharitis?

Inflammation of the eyelid

9

List aetiology/risk factors for blepharitis

Anterior: seborrhoeic, Staph aureus
Posterior: Meibomian gland dysfunction

10

List clinical features of anterior blepharitis

Red lid margin
Scale, dandruff
Dermatitis
Style, ulcer
Distorted lashes
Keratitis

11

List clinical features of posterior blepharitis

Deep red lid
Dried secretions
Gritty eyes
Chalazion
Rosacea

12

Outline management of blepharitis

Lid hygiene - cotton wool swab, bathing
Warm compresses
Topical fusidic acid/chloramphenicol
Topical steroid
Incision and curettage for chalazion

13

What is entropion?

Lid turns inwards, causing lashes to rub against globe

14

List aetiology/risk factors for entropion

Ageing
Degeneration of lid fascial elements and muscles

15

List clinical features of entropion

Red eye
Irritation

16

Outline management of entropion

Surgical taping of eyelid
Botox for lower eyelid

17

What is ectropion?

Lid turns outwards

18

List aetiology/risk factors for ectropion

Ageing
Facial nerve palsy

19

Outline management of ectropion

Surgical weight implant
Plastic surgery

20

What is keratoconjunctivitis sicca?

"dry eye syndrome" due to reduced tear production or excess tear evaporation

21

List aetiology/risk factors for keratoconjunctivitis sicca

Lacrimal gland destruction (Sjogren's)
Mucin deficiency (low vitamin A, SJ syndrome)
Ageing

22

What is a normal Schirmer test?

Test strip should soak more than 15mm in 5 mins

23

Outline management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca

Artificial tears if symptomatic

24

List aetiology/risk factors for orbital cellulitis

Spread from paranasal sinus infection
Dental injury
Staphylococci
Streptococci

25

List clinical features of orbital cellulitis

Fever
Lid swelling
Reduced eye mobility
Blindness if optic nerve involvement

26

What scan would you want to do promptly for orbital cellulitis?

CT scan

27

Outline management of orbital cellulitis

IV cefuroxime
Surgery to prevent meningitis

28

List clinical features of ophthalmic shingles

Pain and neuralgia in dermatomal distribution of CN V1
Blistering rash
Globe may be affected (iritis, corneal signs, scleritis)
Nose tip involvement (Hutchinson sign) implies nasociliary nerve branch involvement, increasing likelihood of globe affected

29

Outline management of ophthalmic shingles

Oral aciclovir
Refer to specialist

30

Who typically gets retinoblastoma?

Most common primary intraocular tumour in children