Flashcards in Ophthalmology Deck (147)
What makes up the uvea?
What does a miotic agent do? Give an example of one
Miotics constrict the pupil
What does a mydriatic agent do? Give an example of one
Mydriatics dilate the pupil
What is a stye?
Inflammatory lid swelling
Non-specific term - may be transient or infectious
What is hordeolum externum?
Abscess/infection present in lash follicle
May involve sweat/sebum glands, usually points outwards
What is a chalazion?
Residual non-infectious lid swelling that occurs due to blockage of Meibomian gland
Outline management of stye and other lid swellings
Topical antibiotics (fusidic acid)
Incision and curettage
What is blepharitis?
Inflammation of the eyelid
List aetiology/risk factors for blepharitis
Anterior: seborrhoeic, Staph aureus
Posterior: Meibomian gland dysfunction
List clinical features of anterior blepharitis
Red lid margin
List clinical features of posterior blepharitis
Deep red lid
Outline management of blepharitis
Lid hygiene - cotton wool swab, bathing
Topical fusidic acid/chloramphenicol
Incision and curettage for chalazion
What is entropion?
Lid turns inwards, causing lashes to rub against globe
List aetiology/risk factors for entropion
Degeneration of lid fascial elements and muscles
List clinical features of entropion
Outline management of entropion
Surgical taping of eyelid
Botox for lower eyelid
What is ectropion?
Lid turns outwards
List aetiology/risk factors for ectropion
Facial nerve palsy
Outline management of ectropion
Surgical weight implant
What is keratoconjunctivitis sicca?
"dry eye syndrome" due to reduced tear production or excess tear evaporation
List aetiology/risk factors for keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Lacrimal gland destruction (Sjogren's)
Mucin deficiency (low vitamin A, SJ syndrome)
What is a normal Schirmer test?
Test strip should soak more than 15mm in 5 mins
Outline management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Artificial tears if symptomatic
List aetiology/risk factors for orbital cellulitis
Spread from paranasal sinus infection
List clinical features of orbital cellulitis
Reduced eye mobility
Blindness if optic nerve involvement
What scan would you want to do promptly for orbital cellulitis?
Outline management of orbital cellulitis
Surgery to prevent meningitis
List clinical features of ophthalmic shingles
Pain and neuralgia in dermatomal distribution of CN V1
Globe may be affected (iritis, corneal signs, scleritis)
Nose tip involvement (Hutchinson sign) implies nasociliary nerve branch involvement, increasing likelihood of globe affected
Outline management of ophthalmic shingles
Refer to specialist