Infectious Diseases & Precautions Flashcards
Review infection control diseases and precautions.
When should you wash your hands?
- before, after and between each client you care for
- in between dirty to clean procedures
- before and after most procedures and tasks
How long should you wash your hands for?
At least 20 seconds with warm, soapy water.
When should you only use soap and water to wash your hands?
When your hands are visibly dirty or the client is on enteric precautions.
Otherwise, it’s OK to use alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
What type of disinfectant spray is used on dirty or commonly used areas?
Use alcohol or bleach to clean dirty or commonly used areas such as:
- door knobs
Bleach is not used on client’s skin.
What type of substances can be used on client’s skin to disinfect it?
Chlorexidine, povidone iodine or alcohol.
What are hospital acquired infections?
HAI are sometimes referred to as nosocomial infections.
Infections acquired while in the hospital.
Prevent HAIs by implementing infection control precautions.
What are 6 common hospital acquired infections?
- CLABSI: central line associated bloodstream infection
- CAUTI: catheter associated urinary tract infection
- SSI: surgical site infection
- VAP: ventilator associated pneumonia
- C. Diff: GI infection
- MRSA: infection in blood, skin or respiratory tract
Standard (universal) Precautions
- assumes that blood or body fluids by ANY client can be infectious
- PPE: gloves, goggles, gown, and mask (use your judgment on what to wear)
- use a sharps container
- hand hygiene
- keep 3 feet away and cover mouth when coughing or sneezing
- offer mask to clients with respiratory symptoms
All clients are on standards precautions.
Are beyond standard precautions because the disease is highly contagious:
- Airborne precautions
- Droplet precautions
- Contact precautions
Are taken for highly contagious diseases that are transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei that go over long distances and remain suspended in the air for long periods.
- PPE: N95 particulate respirator mask
- possible gown, gloves, goggles
- negative pressure isolation room with at least 6 air exchanges per hour
- client wears a surgical mask if leaving room
This includes dried droplets and dust particles containing infectious material.
Which diseases use Airborne Precautions?
Use the mnemonic My ChickenS haZ TB to remember the most common.
- measles (Rubeola)
- chickenpox / varicella-zoster
- shingles/herpes zoster
- cOVID-19 (SARS) (can also be droplet)
These diseases are also contact precautions.
Are taken for highly contagious diseases that are transmitted by large-particle droplets that travel up to 3 feet or less through the air.
- PPE: surgical mask if within 3 feet of client
- possible gown, gloves, and goggles
Droplets come from sneezing, coughing and talking.
Which diseases use Droplet Precautions?
- scarlet fever
- streptococcal pharyngitis
- pertussis/whopping cough
- parvovirus/fifth disease
- rubella / German measles
- covid-19 (can also be airborne)
Use the mnemonic SPIDERMAN to remember.
Are taken for highly contagious diseases that are transmitted by direct or indirect contact.
- always wear gown and gloves
- if splashing is expected, wear goggles and mask
Common sources of indirect contact are the stethoscope and keyboard.
Which most common diseases use Contact Precautions?
- multidrug-resistant organisms
- VRE, CRE, MRSA (will have the word “resistant” in the name)
- diarrhea/enteric (in the gut)
- C. diff, E. coli, Shigella, hepatitis A & E, rotavirus, polio
- any type of diarrhea or diaper changes for children and adults
- skin and wound infections
- cutaneous diphtheria, herpes simplex virus, impetigo, abscesses, cellulitis, pressure ulcers, pediculosis, smallpox, staphylococcal furunculosis, scabies, zoster, cytomegalovirus
Most students will not memorize this list, but be able to recognize the disease as contact precautions.