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Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (59)
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1

Enumerate chemotactic agents

Leukotriene B4
IL-8
C5a
Platelet Activating Factor
Bacterial Derived N-Formyl peptides

2

Give the 2 major opsonins

Fc fragment of IgG
C3b

3

Non-opsonic phagocytosis involves ____ wich recognizes ____

CR3, C3bi

4

Give (5) Lysosome enzymes

Bacterial Permeability Protein
Lysozyme
Defensins
Lactoferrin
Major Basic Protein

5

(3) Leukocyte secretions during chemotaxis and phagocytosis

Lysosomal enzymes
Oxygen-derived active metabolites
Arachidonic acid metabolism products

6

Enumerate vasoactive amines mediating inflammation

Histamine
Serotonin

7

Richest source of histamine

Mast cells

8

Principal chemical mediator producing interendothelial gaps in venules

Histamine

9

Where is serotonin produced?

Platelets and enterochromaffin cells of the GI tract

10

What forms the MAC?

C5b,C6,C7,C8,C9

11

What are the effects of kinin activation?

bradykinin release

12

What are the effects of bradykinin release?

Increase vascular permeability
Vasodilation
Contraction of smooth muscle

13

What produces platelet activating factor?

Mast cells

14

What are the effects of PAF?

vasoconstriction, bronchoconstriction, platelet activation

15

What are the main cytokines? and what cells produce them?

TNF. IL-1; macrophage

16

What are the local vascular endothelium effects of TNF and IL-1?

Increase expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules
Production of IL-1
Coagulation

17

What are the local effects of TNF and IL-1 on leukocytes?

activation, production of cytokines

18

What are the local effects of TNF and IL-1 on fibroblasts?

Proliferation, increase collagen synthesis

19

What are the major types of chemokines?

C
CC
CXC
CX3C

20

Systemic effects of TNF and IL-1 include

fever
leukocytosis
increase of acute phase proteins
decrease appetite
increase sleep

21

T/F Chronic inflammation can be caused by autoimmunity

T

22

[Identify]
Induced by parasites or allergic reaction;
Mediated by IgE
Involvement of Major Basic Protein

Eosinophilic Response

23

[Identify] Differentiated plasma cells that produce antibodies

B Cells

24

What facilitates macrophage activation leading to epithelioid, multinucleate giant cell formation in granulomatous response?

IFNgamma, IL-4

25

foreign body granuloma is a.k.a

non-hypersensitivity type granuloma

26

immune granuloma is a.k.a

hypersensitivity type granuloma

27

The ff conditions produce an immune granuloma due to impairment of T-cell mediated immunity EXCEPT
a. miliary TB
b. lepromatous leprosy
c. HIV
d. Sarcoidosis

D; Sarcoidosis produce granuloma because there are no identifiable antigens

28

Which of the following granulomatous conditions can a central abcess be observed
a. TB
b. Parasite infection
c. Cat-scratch bulla

C; TB- central caseation; parasites - eosinophilia

29

What are the effects of defective inflammation?

Delayed wound healing
Increased susceptibility to infections
Tissue damage

30

How much change in temperature should be observed to say that one has fever?

1-4 degC inc

31

What are the chemical mediators cause fever?

TNF, IL-1 and IL-6; indirectly by PGE2 synthesis

32

What chemicals mediate leukocytosis?

TNF, IL-1

33

[Infection:Response]
Bacteria:_________
Viral:_________
Parasitic/allergic:_______

Neutrophilia
Lymphocytosis
Eosinophilia

34

Enumerate (3) Acute phase proteins

C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, Serum amyloid A

35

[Protein:Synthesized by]
CRP:________
Fibrinogen:__________
SAA:__________

IL-6
IL-6
IL-1 or TNF

36

T/F albumin and transthyretin promote acute phase inflammation

F; they are negative acute phase proteins

37

[Identify]
Mitogenic Growth Factor

Epidermal growth factor

38

[Identify]
migration and proliferation of fibroblasts, smooth muscle
cells, monocytes; proinflammatory properties

Platelet Derived Growth Factor

39

[Identify] Growth factor for angiogenesis,
wound repair, development (skeletal muscle,
lung maturation, hematopoiesis)

Fibroblast growth factor

40

[Identify] growth inhibitor to most epithelial types, stimulates chemotaxis and production of collagen and
fibrinectin cells, inhibit collaged degradation;
fibrogenesis

Transforming Growth Factor B

41

[Identify] vascular permeability factor, promote blood vessel formation in early development (vasculogenesis

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

42

[Identify] growth factor for mediation of inflammation and immune response

Cytokines

43

what is the hallmark of healing?

Granulation tissue

44

Can mediate all steps in angiogenesis
a. IL-1, TNF
b. TGFB
c. FGF
d. VEGF
e. VPF

D

45

Cause both angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability
a. IL-1, TNF
b. TGFB
c. FGF
d. VEGF
e. VPF

D or E

46

The following impair wound healing EXCEPT
a. Glucocorticoid therapy
b. Denervation
c. Radiation exposure
d. Vitamin C

D

47

How does glucocorticoid therapy impair wound healing?

Steroids inhibit TGFB, decreasing fibrosis

48

Enumerate vasoactive mediators

Histamine
Serotonin
Bradykinin
Anaphylatoxins
Leukotrienes
Prostaglandins
PAF
NO

49

Enumerate Chemotactic factors

C5a
Lipooxygenase products; LTB4
Formylated Peptides
Chemokines

50

PMNS, Platelets, Mast cells
a. Acute inflammation
b. Chronic inflammation

A

51

Products of COX1

Thromboxane, Prostaglandin

52

Products of COX2

Prostaglandin

53

What is the function of thromboxane?

Vasoconstrictor, platelet aggregator

54

[Function]
Histamine, prostaglandins

Vasodilation

55

[Function]
Histamine and serotonin
C3a and C5a (by liberating vasoactive
amines from mast cells)
Leukotrienes C4, D4, E4

Increased vascular permeability

56

[Function]
TNF and IL-1
Chemokines
C3a, C5a
Leukotriene B4

Chemotaxis, leukocyte recruitment and
activation

57

[Function]
IL-1 and TNF
Prostaglandins

Fever

58

[Function]
Prostaglandins
Bradykinin

Pain

59

[Function]
Lysosomal enzymes of leukocytes
Reactive oxygen species

Tissue Damage