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Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (99)
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Provides tumor with structural framework for cells to grow

Stroma

1

The following are true about neoplasia except
A. Persistence of tumors result from genetic alterations
B. Autonomous, unregulated division
C. Independent from the host in terms of nutrition and blood supply
D. Means "new growth"
E. Tumors are clonal, meaning comes from 1 altered cell

C

2

What is a desmoplasia?

Abundant collagenous stroma derived from parenchymal stimulation

3

Suffix of benign tumors with a mesenchymal origin

-oma except lymphona, melanoma, mesothelioma,seminoma

4

Benign epithelial neoplasm derived from glands

Adenoma

5

Benign epithelial neoplasm with visible finger-like projections

Papilloma

6

Large, benign cystic masses e.g. of the ovary

Cystadenomas

7

Visible projection above a mucosal surface and projects into the gastric or colonic lumen

Polyp

8

Malignant tumors with mesenchymal origin

Sarcoma

9

Malignant tumors with epithelial origin

Carcinoma

10

What is an undifferentiated malignant tumor?

Malignant tumor composed of undifferentiated cells

11

Differentiate pleomorphic adenoma from teratoma

Teratoma - from totipotent cell, cells from more than 1 germ layer origin

Pleomorphic adenoma - diff cell types but from 1 germ cell layer

12

Differentiate benign from malignant teratoma

Benign teratoma has well differentiated cells but malignant teratoma has immature cells

13

[benign, malignant names] blood vessel tumor

Hemangiona, angiosarcoma

14

[benign, malignant names] lymph vessels

Lymphangioma, lymphangiosarcoma

15

[benign, malignant names] synovium

-, synovial sarcoma

16

[benign, malignant names] mesothelium

-, mesothelioma

17

[benign, malignant names] brain coverings

Meningioma, invasive meningioma

18

[benign, malignant names] hematopoietic cells

-,leukemia

19

[benign, malignant names] lymphoid tissue

-,lymphoma

20

[benign, malignant names] smooth muscle

Leiomyoma, leiosarcoma

21

[benign, malignant names] striated muscle

Rhabdomyoma, rhabdomyosarcoma

22

[benign, malignant names] stratified squamous

Squamous cell papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma

23

[benign, malignant names] basal cells of skin/adnexa

-, basal cell carcinoma

24

[benign, malignant names] epithelial lining of glands or ducts

Adenoma/papilloma/cystadenoma, adenocarcinoma/papillary carcinoma/cystadenocarcinoma

25

[benign, malignant names] respiratory passages

Bronchial adenoma/ bronchogenic carcinoma

26

[benign, malignant names] renal epithelium

Renal tubular adenoma, renal cell carcinoma

27

[benign, malignant names] liver

Liver cell adenoma,hepatocellular carcinoma

28

[benign, malignant names] urinary tract epithelium

Transitional cell papilloma, transitional cell carcinoma

29

[benign, malignant names] placental epithelium

Hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma

30

[benign, malignant names] testicular epithelium

-,Seminoma/embryonal carcinoma

31

What is Wilm's tumor

Malignant tumor if renal anlage

32

Disorganized but benign-looking masses composed of cells indigenous to the particular site

Hamartoma

33

Extent to which neoplastic parenchymal cells resemble normal parenchymal cells

Differentiation

34

Lack of cellular differentiation is referred to as

Anaplasia

35

[Benign vs. Malignant]differentiation and anaplasia

Benign: Well differentiated;mitoses scant
Malignant: wide range of differentiation; immature

36

Hallmarks of malignancy

1. Metastasis
2. Anaplasia

37

Variation in size and shape characteristic of anaplastic tumors

Pleomorphism

38

Tumor of melanocytes: benign, malignant

Nevus, malignant melanoma

39

Morphologic changes associated with anaplasia

Pleomorphism, abnormal nuclear morphology (large nucleus, hyperchromatic abundant chromatin), mitoses, loss of polarity, tumor giant cells, scant stroma, large central areas of necrosis

40

[Define] dysplasia

Disordered growth

41

When dysplastic changes are confined by the basement membrane the tumor is considered a preinvasive neoplasm and is referred to as

Carcinoma in situ

42

Which of the statements is true
A. Presence of Mitoses microscopically observed indicates malignancy
B. Dysplasia always lead to cancer
C. A transformed cell does not retain functional capability of a normal cell no matter how well differentiated it is
D. The more anaplastic a tumor is, the more likely will it take a specific role
E. NOTA

E

43

3 main factors in determining tumor rate of growth

Doubling time, fraction of tumor cells in replicative pool, rate at which cells shed or die

44

Portion of cells within the tumor in the replicative pool

Growth fraction

45

The following concepts are true about tumor cell kinetics except
A. Fast-growing tumors have high cell turnover, implying that rates of both proliferation and apoptosis are high
B. In chemotherapy, the fraction if cells in the replicative pool does not affect its effectivity
C. For tumor to grow, rate of cell proliferation must exceed rate of cell death
D. NOTA

B

46

Explain the principle behind combined modality strategy to fight certain tumors

Combined modality - excise tumor first causing surviving cells to join the replicative pool making them susceptible to drug therapy.

47

T/F In general, malignant tumors have a higher growth rate than benign tumors

T. Generally, yes, but there some benign tumors grow faster

48

The following are true about leiomyomas except
A. Growth is dependent on estrogen levels
B. Not necessarily excised especially in old, turning menopausal patients since the drop in estrogen levels will cause the leiomyoma to shrink
C. There is rapid growth of leiomyoma during pregnancy
D. AOTA
E. NOTA

E

49

True about cancer except
A. Cancers are immortal and have a limitless proliferative capacity
B. Cancer stem cells are rapidly dividing and susceptible to chemotherapeutic drugs
C. Elimination of cancer stem cells are fundamental in trying to cure cancer
D. Cancer stem cells arise from normal stem cells and differentiated cells that acquired the capacity to divide

C; however cancer cells espress drug resistant pfactors such as multiple drug resistance-1(MDR-1).

50

Cells that allow a human tumor to grow and maintain itself indefinitely

Tumor initiating cells (T-IC)

51

True about benign tumors except
A. Grow as a cohesive expansile mass
B. A fibrous capsule differentiates a benign tumor from the host tissue
C. A well defined cleavage plane is present in all benign tumors.
D. NOTA

C; some, like hemangiomas, do not have

52

True about malignant tumors except
A. Infiltration, invasion and destruction accompany malignancy
B. Anaplasia and metastasis are the hallmarks of malignancy
C. No malignant tumor grows inside a fibrous capsule
D. Malignant tumors recognize no anatomical boundaries
E. NOTA

C; they are pseudoencapsulated masses

53

All malignant tumors metastasize EXCEPT

Gliomas and basal cell carcinoma of the skin

54

Give 3 ways through which cancers may spread

1. Direct seeding of body cavities or surfaces
2. Lymphatics
3. Hematogenous spread

55

What is a pseudomyxoma peritonei?

Gelatinous neoplastic mass secreted by appendiceal carcinomas that fill the peritoneal cavity

56

Which lymph node will be affected in carcinomas of the breast arising from the upper outer quadrants?

Axillary lymph nodes

57

Which lymph node will be affected by breast carcinomas beginning in the inner quadrants?

Lymph nodes along internal mammary arteries

58

What may cause enlargement of nodes? Give 2

(1) Spread and growth of cancer cells, (2) reactive hyperplasia

59

T/F nodal enlargement proximal to a cancer necessarily mean dissemination of the primary lesion

F

60

Hematogenous spread is typical of
A. Sarcoma
B. Carcinoma
C. Neither

A

61

T/F arteries are more difficult to be penetrated by malignancies because they have thicker walls than veins

T

62

Which 2 organs are commonly involved in hematogenous dissemination (venous)?

Lungs (caval), liver (portal)

63

Where does cancers arising in clos proximity to the vertebrae embolizes?

Paravertebral plexus

64

T/F the larger and more undifferentiated the primary, the more likely are metastases

T

65

Usually a point mutation occurring in a single allele of a tumor suppressor gene; inheritance of a single autosomal dominant mutant gene

Autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes

66

Example of autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes

Retinoblastoma - mutant of Rb suppressor gene
Familial adenomatous polypoosis - mutation of APC

67

T/F HNPCC is an example of DNA replication defects

T

68

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] arsenic, arsenic compounds

Lung, skin, hemangiosarcoma

69

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] asbestos

Lung, mesothelioma, GI (esophagus, stomach, large intestine)

70

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] benzene

Leukemia, hodgkin lymphoma

71

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] beryllium, beryllium compounds

Lung

72

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] cadmium and cadmium compounds

Prostate

73

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] chromium

Lung

74

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] nickel compounds

Nose, lung

75

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] radon

Lung

76

[human cancer site for which reasonable evidence is available] vinyl chloride

Angiosarcoma, liver

77

[inherited predisposition] RB

Retinoblastoma

78

[inherited predisposition] p53

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

79

[inherited predisposition] p16/INK4A

Melanoma

80

[inherited predisposition] APC

Familial adenomatous polyposis(colon cancer)

81

[inherited predisposition] NF1,NF2

Neurofibromatosis 1,2

82

[inherited predisposition] BRCA1,2

Breast and ovarian tumors

83

[inherited predisposition] MEN1, RET

Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1,2

84

[inherited predisposition] MSH2, MLH1, MSH6

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer

85

[inherited predisposition] PTCH

Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

86

[inherited predisposition] PTEN

Cowden syndrome (epithelial cancers)

87

[inherited predisposition] LKB1

Peutz-Jegher syndrome (epithelial cancers)

88

[inherited predisposition] VHL

Renal cell carcinomas

89

Examples of inherited autosomal recessive syndromes of defective DNA repair (4)

Xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, HNPC

90

[inherited predisposition] enumerate familial cancers

Breast, ovarian, pancreatic

91

True about familial cancers EXCEPT
a. Occurs in familial pattern
b. Include early age onset
c. Multiple or bilateral tumors
d. May include carcinomas of colon, breast, ovary and brain, melanomas and lymphomas
e. associated with specific marker phenotypes

E

92

People with ulcerative colitis, H. pylori gastritis, viral hepatitis, and chronic pancreatitis are prone to development of cancer. What may be part of the reason?

Chronic inflammation which is present in these cases increase the risk cancer development. This is due to compensatory proliferation of cells to repair damage.

93

Give (4) precancerous conditions

1. Chronic atrophic gastritis of pernicious anemia
2. Solar keratosis of the skin
3. Chronic ulcerative colitis
4. Leukoplakia (oral cavity, vulva, penis)

94

The following statements are true EXCEPT
a. Most of precancerous conditions lead to malignant neoplasms
b. benign neoplasias contribute to precancerous conditions
c. Neither a nor b
d. Both a and b

A

95

The following statements regarding the molecular basis of cancer are true EXCEPT
a. Nonlethal genetic damages lies at the heart of carcinogenesis
b. a tumor is made up of cells with polyclonal origin
c. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process at both the phenotypic and the genetic levels, resulting from the accumulation of multiple mutations
d. Mutant alleles of proto-oncogenes are considered dominant because they transform cells despite the presence of a normal counterpart

B; monoclonal

96

What are proto-oncogenes?

Regulatory genes promoting growth

97

What are tumor suppressor genes?

Regulatory genes inhibiting growth

98

Which statement is true regarding regulatory genes?
a. Tumor suppressor genes need only 1 allele to be damaged for transformation to happen
b. proto-oncogenes need both alleles to be damaged for them to be transformed
c. Neither a nor b
d. Both a and b

C