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Meiosis

Special type of cell division by which gametes are formed

1

Why is meiosis important in sexual reproduction?

Halves the number of chromosomes
Produces gametes

2

What is the advantage of meiosis to the next generation of individuals?

Produces variation as daughter cells aren't identical

3

Results of meiosis

Leads to the production of 4 genetically different cells with only half the number of chromosomes

4

Genotype

Your genetic makeup (ie all of the alleles present in the cell nucleus)

5

Homozygous

2 identical alleles eg brown and brown or blue and blue

6

Heterozygous

2 different alleles eg brown and blue

7

Phenotype

The characteristic that is shown

8

Codominance

Both alleles contribute to the phenotype, so that both characteristics are present at the same time

9

Where do new alleles come from

Mutations

10

What are mutations

A change in the order of bases in DNA (ie a change in the genetic code)

11

What sorts of mutations are there

Gene mutations or chromosome mutations

12

Point mutation

A change in a single base

13

Chromosome mutation

Changes in chromosome structure of number

14

Dominant allele

Only 1 copy of allele is necessary for the characteristic to be shown

15

Recessive allele

2 copies of the allele are necessary for the characteristic to be shown

16

Meiosis- why must the dividing cell copy each chromosome

So that there is enough genetic material to be shared between the four daughter cells