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Flashcards in integument Deck (69):
1

what does the integument include?

skin sweat glands sebaceous gland hair and nails.

2

what are the function of the skin

protection, body temp regulation, reception, absorption, excretion.

3

where is thick skin found

palms and soles of feet

4

where is thin skin found

everywhere else

5

what does thin skin contain

hair follicle arrector pili muscles, sabaceous glands, sweat glands

6

what is the epidermis

the epithelial layer of skin contain stratified squamous keratinized

7

what is the dermis

loose CT dense irregular collagenous ct

8

which layer is avascular

the epidermis

9

what are the two cell types of the epidermis

keratinocytes and nonkeratinocytes

10

what is the diffence between the keratinocytes and the non

the keratinocytes have accumulated keratin filiments renewed at night desquamate every 20-30 days.

11

in what section of the slide would mitotic division occur in keratinocytes

the basal layer next to the membrane anchored with hemidesmosones

12

what time of day does mitosis take place in your keratinocytes

in the dark

13

what are the three types of nonkeratinocytes

langerhands cells merkel cells and melanocytes

14

what is the role of langerhans cells

defense cells protect from forieng antigens

derived from bone marrow reside in statum spinosum and interact with lymphocytes

15

what is the role of merkel cells

mechanoreceptors fine detial touch sensation.

found in statum basale form merkel cell neurite complexes with unmyelanated nerve terminals

fingertips

16

what is the role of melanocytes

sun umbrellas protect DNA from UV light form melanin

17

where do langerhans cells derive from

precursors inn the bone marrow go to blood stream then go to epidermis and stratam spinosum

18

what does a birmeck granule(veriform granules) inside of a langerhans cell look like

vessicle portion connected to a rod like extension

19

where are merkel cells found in abundance

finger tips and base of hair follicles

20

where is the merkel cell located

at the basal layer statum basale

21

what form the merkel cell neurite complexes

merkel cell and unmyelinated nerve terminal

22

what are melanocytes derived from

the neural crest

23

what do melanocytes make

melanin

24

where are melanocytes found in a cell

in the stratum basale and superficial dermis

25

what part of the melanocyte makes tyrosinase

the RER makes it and GA packages it into melanosomes

26

what parts of the epidermis have more melanocytes

the parts that are more exposed to the light

27

what causes races to have diffenent skin coloration

the number of melanocytes is the same it’s the activity of tyrosinase numver of melanin granulas sice and distribution and rate of breakdown of the granuals

28

how does the melanin get into adjecent cells to protect them

the melanocyte has cytoplasmic processes that invade its neighbors and then break down and release the melanin around the side of the nucleus exposed to the light.

29

what is vitiligo

an autoimmune disease of melanocytes caues skin spots where no melanocyts reside.

30

what is albinism

melanocyts don’t make melanin due to bad tyrosinase activity

31

what are the strata of thick skin

stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, startum spinosum, stratum basale

32

what does the stratum corneum do and what are its characteristics

it provides protection, callus fomation, no nuclei or organelles continouse desquamate due to no desmosones

33

what does the stratum lucidum do and what are characteistics

protection no nuclei or organelles with keratin filiments light staining region

34

what does the stratum granulosum do and what are the characteristics

water proofing does have nuclei apoptotic nuclear morphology, soft keratine granuels membran coating granules called lamellar bodies

35

how does the stratum granulosum waterproof

exocytosis of lipid rich substancs form sheets of waterproofing aslo causing starvatoin of superficial layers becaue of lipid membrane that it forms.

36

what does the stratum spinosum do and what are the characteristics

binding and protection, thick prominent statum interdigitating processes with desmosomes, prickly appearance bundles of intemedialte filomantes cytokeratine (tonofilaments) in cells of upper layers membrane coating franuls lamellar and mitosis in basal layer of the stratum (langerhans cells)

37

what does the stratum basale do

germinativum, cell renewal achors epidermis to base membrane.

38

what the characteristics of the stratum basale

single layer of cells desmosones bind to neighboring cells, lots of mitotic activity have hemidesmosones

39

in stratum spinosum what forms the bridges between the cells

desmosones junctions between to interdigitatin processes of keratinocytes.

40

what are the layers of thin skin

startum coreum, spinosum, and basale. Startum lucida and granulosa barely there.

41

what is ichyosis

kyperkeratosis makes you have fish like scales.

42

what glues the epidermis to the dermis

thebasement membrane

43

what are the layers of the dermis that extend into the epidermas and where are they found

dermis papillae and can be found in high mechanical stress areas like soles of feetand palmes (thick skin areas)

44

what forms our fingerprints

the dermal ridges

45

what does the dermis do

it provides the nutritional needs of the epidermis

46

what are the two layers of the dermis

the papillary layer and the reticular layer

47

what does the papilary layer do and what is it made of

forms the papillae to provide nutrients makde of loose CT reticular fibers elsastic fibers anchoring ribrils VII and meissner corpuscles (mechanorecptors)

48

what are kreause end bulbs

thermoreceptors

49

into what level do 2nd deree burns extend

papillary layer if superfical and reticular if deep.

50

what is the reticular layer made of

Dense irregular CT type 1 collagen thick elastic fibers proteoglycans fibroblasts, mast cells lymphocytes macrophages fat cells hair follicle arrector pili muscles sebaaceous glands sweat glands

51

what two types of receptors are found in the reticular layer

pacinian corpuscles detect pressure/vibrations, and ruffini corpuscles are tensile forces numerous in soles of feet.

52

is the hypodermis part of the skin

no its part of the subcutanous layer superficial facia layer

53

what do eccrine sweat glands do

thermoregulators found by themselves, simple coiled tubular glandslocatd in deep dermis or hypodermis innervate3d by symphathetic fibers cholinergic endings.

54

what three things run with hiar

the folliclue eractor pili muscles and the sebaceous glands

55

what what types of cells make the errine sweat glands

simple cubodial to low colimnar

56

what type of cells surround the secretory unit

myoepitheial cells help squeeze the sweat out.

57

where are apoceine sweat glands found

axilla areola and anal region

58

what activates the apocrine sweat glands

hormones so start at puberty

59

what activates the function of sebaceous glands

hormones again starts after puberty

60

what type of secretion method do sebacous cells use

holocrine

61

what type of secretion method do apocrine and eccrine cells us

merocrine

62

what is the acinus made of in sebaceous glands

the small basal cells immature on the basal lamina and the larger round cells that are degenerating

63

what is the duct made of in sebacous glands

stratified squamous epithelium

64

what are the three types of hairs

vellus soft short hair like eyelids, terminal long course on scalp and eybrowns, and lanugo on fetus

65

what are the parts of the hair follicles

hair root" dermal papilla and matrix" external root sheath, internal root sheath "henlesys outer, huxleuys middle , and cuticle inner layer" and hair shaft "medulla inner, cortex middle, and cuticle outer"

66

what type of muscles is the arrector pili muscles

smooth muscles

67

what innervates the erctor papillu

sympathetic innervation

68

be able to identif the nail plate and nail bed

good job

69

where does nail growth occue

in the nail matrix