Integumentary Pathology Flashcards Preview

Linde's Sets > Integumentary Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary Pathology Deck (191):
1

7 steps of regeneration & repair of the skin

Blood clot, inflammation, re-epitheilization, fibroplasia, angiogenesis, wound contraction, remodeling

2

Hallmark of wound healing

granulation tissue

3

2 responses of the EPIDERMIS to injury

Alteration in growth & differentiation
Alteration in fluid balance & cellular adhesion

4

3 forms of alterations in epidermal pigmentation

Hyperpigmentation
Hypopigmentation
Pigmentary incontinence

5

2 dzs that lead to increased production of melanin

allergic dermatitis
Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's)

6

2 dzs. that lead to increased melanocytes

Lentigo
Melanocytic Neoplasia

7

What mineral deficiency can result in HYPOpigmentation

Cu deficiency = Acquired lack of melanin production

8

3 causes of DERMAL atrophy

Starvation
Cushing's
Iatrogenic (long term steroid use)

9

What is the early stage of fibroplasia in response to injury?

Granulation tissue

10

What is another term for exuberant granulation tissue?

Proud flesh

11

What is the condition that is an inherited abnormality of collagen that results in increased stretchability? Give an example

Collagen Dysplasia

Cutaneous Asthenia

12

What are the 3 abnormal deposits in the dermis?

Amyloid
Mucin/Hyaluronic acid
Ca

13

What abnormal deposit in the dermis leads to cutaneous myxedema?

Mucin or hyaluronic acid (GAG)

14

When can you see cutaneous myxedema? (TQ)

HYPOthyroidism
Mucinosis of the Shar-Pei

15

3 forms of abnormal mineralization/calicification of the dermis

Dystrophic
Metastatic
Idiopathic

16

Dystropic mineralization is the result of chronic injury. Give 2 examples.

Calcinosis cutis
Granulomatous foci

17

Which form of mineralization results in deposition of Ca in tissues during hypercalcemia?

Metastatic
(chronic renal dz, hyperparathyroidism, cholecalciferol toxicosis & calcinogenic plants)

18

What are the characteristics of ACUTE dermatitis?

lasts hrs- several d.
Mostly neutrophils

19

What are the characteristics of CHRONIC dermatitis?

lasts wks, mo., yrs.
Mostly mononuclear leukocytes (macrophages, lymphocytes & plasma cells)

20

Acral lick dermatitis if what form of dermatitis?

Chronic

21

What 4 things can cause ATROPHY of the adnexa?

1. hormonal abnormalities
2. Nutritional abnormalities
3. Ischemia
4. Stress/poor health

22

What 4 things can cause HYPERTROPHY of the adnexa?

1. injury
2. Acral lick dermatitis
3. Chronic allergic dermatitis
4. Chronic bacT/yeast infections

23

What frequently causes alopecia?

follicular dysplasia

24

What often leads to abnormalities of hair cycle stages?

Hormonal disorders

25

Folliculitis is commonly seen with what 2 dzs?

Demodicosis
Pemphigus Foliaceus

26

What organisms can cause luminal folliculitis?

Staph.
Microsporum
Trichophyton
Demodex

27

Bulbitis is also called _____.

Alopecia areata

28

Sebaceous adenitis is most common in what species?

Dogs

29

Which form of adenitis is characterized by inflammation of the APOCRINE glands?

Hiradenitis

30

Which species are most commonly affected by vasculitis?

Dogs & horses

31

List some examples of dzs that can cause vasculitis.

SLE
Rickettsia infections
Herpesvirus
FIP virus
Erysipelothrix spp.

32

Black Diamond Skin Disease is a common name for what dz?(TQ)

Porcine Erysipelas (lesions due to vasculitis)

33

What are some causes of Panniculitis?

BacT & fungi
SLE
Physical injury
Vit E deficiency
Pancreatic dz.
Idiopathic

34

What are the C.S. of Panniculitis?

painful, palpable nodules --> ulcerated & drain
Pyrexia
Lethargy
Inappetence

35

What are the 2 non-genetic forms of congenital alopecia & hypotrichosis?

Maternal Iodine deficiency
In Utero- Pestivirus infection (BVD & CSF)

36

What are the congenital & hereditary skin dzs? (7)

Congenital alopecia & hypotrichosis
Collagen Dysplasia disorders
Mucinosis
Epidermolysis bullosa
Epitheliogenesis imperfecta
Congenital hypertrichosis
Dermal Vegetans

37

Epidermolysis bullosa (red foot dz) is reported in what animal species?

horses, cattle, sheep, dogs & cats

38

Border dz or hairy shaker dz is an example of which congenital skin dz?

Congenital HYPERtrichosis due to in utero Pestivirus infection

39

Which breed of swine is Dermatosis vegetans common in?(TQ)

Landrace pigs (autosomal recessive trait)

40

What causes actinic injury on non-haired & non-pigmented areas?

UV radiation --> DNA damage (thymidine dimers) --> SCC

41

How does photosensitization occur?

photodynamic compounds react w/ UV radiation & cause oxidative injury

42

What is Type I Photosensitization?

caused by ingestion of certain plants or drugs

43

What is Type II Photosensitization?

Inherited defect in porphyrin metabolism

44

What is Type III Photosensitization (most common form)?

Hepatogenous photosensitization --> due to liver dz. & reduced ability to excrete phylloerythrin (by-product of chlorophyll metabolism)

45

What are the 2 causes of actinic injury?

Photosensitization
Photo-enhanced dermatoses

46

What dzs are associated w/ photo-enhanced dermatoses? (3)

Lupus erythematosus
Dermatomyositis
Photoactivated vasculitis of the horse

47

Where does photoactivated vasculitis often occur on the horse?

animals with white legs

48

Which species are prone to vaccine-associated sarcomas?

Felines

49

What does Ergot poisoning cause in animals?

ischemic necrosis of extremities

50

Which form of grass can get infected with Neotyphodium spp & contains ergot alkaloids?

tall fescue grass

51

What are the signs of Selenium toxicity in animals?

Poor hair coat w/ partial alopecia

52

What are the sings of Hairy Vetch toxicity in animals?(TQ)

dermatitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, granulomatus inflammation of many organs

53

What are the proper names for "hot spots"?

Pyotraumatic dermatitis
Acute mosit dermatitis

54

What physical injury is caused by psychological disorders that lead to persistent licking/chewing?

Acral lick dermatitis
Lick Granuloma
Neurodermatitis

55

Which animals are susceptible to intertrigo (skin fold dermatitis)?

Dogs- excessive skin folds
Cows- large pendulous udders

56

What are the 6 types of physical injury that can occur to the skin?

Acral lick dermatitis
Pyotraumatic dermatitis
Intertrigo
Feline Ulcerative Dermatitis Syndrome
Callus
Temperature extremes

57

1st degree burns affect what layer of skin?

epidermis only

58

2nd degree burns affect what part of skin.

epidermis & part of dermis

59

3rd degree burns causes:

full thickness necrosis of skin
Permanent scarring
life threatening--> infection & fluid loss

60

Hypothyroidism affects what stages of the hair cycle in dogs?

Anagen stage; hair coat fails to grow

61

Hyperadrenocorticism has a _____ effect on _____ synthesis & maintenance due to excess glucocorticoids.

inhibitory
collagen

62

What is a common skin sign of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs?

Clinical cutaneous lesions
Calcinosis cutis - dystrophic calcification

63

Pituitary tumors of the pars intermedia in older horses leads to what?

Hyperhidrosis (incr. sweating)
Hirsutism/hypertrichosis

64

What are the C.S. of hyperestrogenism?

symmetric alopecia
follicular hyperkeratosis
Enlarged nipples, prepuce & vulva

65

What causes hyperestrogenism in females?

ovarian cysts or tumors

66

What causes hyperestrogenism in males?

Functional Sertoli cell tumor

67

Urticaria is most common in what 2 species?

dogs
horses

68

What is the immunologic mechanism of urticaria?

Type I & Type III hypersensitivities

69

What 3 things can cause non-immunologic urticaria?

heat
exercise
stress

70

What species commonly get atopic dermatitis?

dogs
cats
horses

71

What is the immunologic mechanism of atopic dermatitis?

Type I hypersensitivity w/ IgE Abs to environmental allergens

72

What is the predominant sign of atopic dermatitis?

Pruritis w/ frequent excoriations & secondary bacT & yeast infection

73

What is the immunologic mechanism of insect bite hypersensitivity?

Type I & Type IV hypersensitivity rxn to insect saliva

74

What are the gross lesions of insect bite hypersensitivity?

papular to exudative dermatitis
Miliary dermatitis

75

Which species commonly get miliary dermatitis?

cats!

76

What species of insect causes Sweet Itch in horses?

Culicoides

77

What is the immunologic mechanism of Allergic Contact Dermatitis?

Type IV

78

Gross lesions of allergic contact dermatitis.

Erythema
Papules
Exudation in contact areas

79

What is the immunologic mechanism of drug hypersensitivies?

any of the types

80

What are the 6 autoimmune dzs of the skin?

Pemphigus foliaceus (PF)
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV)
Bullous pemphigoid (BP)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE)
Erythema Multiforme (EM)

81

Which form of pemphigus is milder & most common?

pemphigus foliaceus

82

What is another name for pemphigus foliaceus?

superficial pemphigus

83

What is the pathogenesis of Pemphigus foliaceus?

AutoAbs against Desmoglain 1 & acantholysis of superficial dermis

84

Gross lesions of Pemphigus foliaceus.

vesicles--> rapidly become pustules
May be localized on face & feet or generalized

85

What is the histologic lesion commonly seen w/ Pemphigus foliaceus?

acantholytic keratinocytes

86

What is the other name for Pemphigus vulgaris & is more severe?

Deep pemphigus

87

Pathogenesis of Pemphigus Vulgaris? (TQ)

AutoAbs against desmoglein 3 & acantholysis of deep dermis

88

Gross lesions associated w/ Pemphigus Vulgaris?

Vesiculo-ulcerative lesions (mucocutaneous jxns)

89

Histological lesions are seen w/ Pemphigus Vulgaris?

suprabasilar vesicles
Pustules
Acantholytic keratinocytes
"Tombstoning" of basal cells

90

Pathogenesis of bullous pemphigoid (BP)?

AutoAbs directed against hemidesmosomal proteins & subepidermal vesicle formation

91

Which animals get Bullos Pemphigoid?

horses
dogs
cats
Yucatan minipigs (awe!!!)

92

Gross lesions of Bullos Pemphigoid?

vesicles
erosions
ulcers
crusts
variable locations & severity

93

Histologic lesions of Bullos Pemphigoid.

Subepidermal vesicles & bullae

94

Pathogenesis of SLE in dogs?

Type III hypersensitivity --> multi systemic
(immune-complex deposition & AutoAbs)

95

What titer is raised in dogs w/ SLE & can be used as a DX aid? (TQ)

elevated anitnuclear Ab titer
(ANA titer)

96

Gross lesions of SLE?

erythema
depigmentation
alopecia
scaling
crusting
ulceration
lesions start on face & extend to the trunk & extremities

97

Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) only involves which organ?

skin

98

Gross lesions of DLE are located where?

nasal planum
dorsal nose
pinnae
lips
periocular areas

99

What is the ANA titer of DLE patients?

NEGATIVE ANA titer

100

What can DLE lesions be indistinguishable from? How do you DX it ?

Mucocutaneous pyoderma
responsiveness to TX

101

Gross lesions of erythema multiforme (EM)?

localized or generalize erythema & circular/linear erosions or ulcerations

102

Histologic lesions of erythma mulitforme (EM)?

Numerous apoptotic keratinocytes w/in multiple layers of the epidermis

103

What is the often life-threatening form of EM that can result in full thickness epidermal necrosis?

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)

104

Which form of Poxvirus is the most pathogenic?

Sheeppox & Goatpox (FAD)

105

Pathogenesis of Poxviruses.

proliferation & necrosis

106

2 dermatotropic herpesviruses

BHV-2: ulcerative mammilitis
BHV-4: mammary pustular dermatitis

107

Vesicular-ulcerative dermatitis is a common lesion of _____.

Herpesviruses

108

What are the 2 oncogenic herpesviruses that cause cutaneous tumors?

Marek's dz of chickens
Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis

109

Marek's Dz of chickens causes what type of lymphoma?

Cutaneous follicular lymphoma

110

Papillomaviruses causes what type of benign masses?

Papilloma

111

Papillomaviruses causes what types of malignant tumors?

Carcinoma
Sarcoid

112

How does the papillomavirus cause tumor formation?

inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (p53 & Rb)

113

Papillomaviruses commonly cause sarcoid in what 2 species?

cats
horses

114

What other viruses cause cutaneous lesions? (5)

Picorna
Rhabdo
Calici
Parvo
Retro

115

What are the 4 portals of entry for bacterial infections?

Pores
Hematogenous spread
Disruption of the physical barrier
Disruption of immunological barrier

116

BacT skin infections most commonly affect which species?

Dogs

117

K9 superficial pyoderma is caused by what?

Staph. pseudintermedius

118

What are the 4 layers of the skin?

Stratum corneum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale

119

What is the typical transit time of a single keratinocyte?

~ 1 mo.

120

4 things that make up the basement membrane zone

Hemidesmosomes
Lamina lucida
Lamina densa
Desmosomes

121

What is the composition and fxn of the dermis?

Composed of collagen, elastin fibers & glycosaminoglycans

Support of other structures

122

What affects hair growth?

photoperiod, nutrition & health status

123

Which pathogens can penetrate intact skin?

hookworm larvae
Schistosoma

124

Which dermatophytes often affect hair & claws?

Microsporum canis
Trichophyton mentagrophytes

125

Which pathogen often enters via puncture wounds?

Clostridium tetani

126

Which 2 pathogens often enter through hair follicle openings?

Demodex
Staph.

127

What is the most important barrier against infection & fluid loss?

Stratum corneum

128

How do keratintocytes provide structural integrity?

by producing keratin filaments, desomosomes & hemidesmosomes

129

What comprises the Innate immunity of the skin? (6)

Stratum corneum barrier
Macrophages & dentritic cells
Phagocytes
Endothelial cells
Coagulation system
Complement cascade

130

What comprises the Adaptive immunity of the skin? (6)

Langerhans cells
CD8 T cells (CTLs)
CD4 Th-1 (activate macrophages)
CD4 Th-2 (activates B-cells, etc)
Endothelial cells
Keratinocytes

131

When does blood clotting occur in the skin?

0-12 hrs post injury

132

What does inflammation occur?

12-24 hrs. post injury

133

Recruitment of inflammatory cells.

1. Phagocytes --> remove debris
2. Macrophages secrete collagenase --> debridement & tissue remodeling

134

When does re-epithelialization occur?

3-7 d. post injury

135

2 things that occur during re-epithelialization

1. Keratinocytes produce proteases
2. Re-establishment of basement membrane zone

136

Fibroplasia occurs when? What mediates it?

3-7 d post injury
Cytokines & growth factors

137

What do fibroblasts do during fibroplasia?

produce proteolytic enzymes & extracellular matrix proteins

138

When does angiogenesis occur?

3-7 d post injury

139

When does wound contraction occur?

after 7 d. post injury

140

When does tissue remodeling occur?

wks to mos post injury

141

What are the primary cornification disorders (less common)?

primary seborrhea of cocker spaniel
ichthyosis

142

What causes secondary cornification disorders (more common)?

chronic stimuli
vit. A deficiency

143

Disruption of stratum corneum predisposes animals to infections by ____ & _____.

bacT & yeast

144

What is a common response to chronic stimuli like inflammation or trauma?

Acanthosis

145

3 causes of dyskeratosis

Zinc-responsive dermatosis
Actinic keratosis
SCC

146

What 2 immune mediated dzs cause apoptosis of the epidermis?

Lupus erythematosus
Erythema multiforme

147

3 things that result in atrophy of the epidermis

hormone imbalances
partial ischemia
severe malnutrition

148

2 common causes of Spongiosis.

Staph.
Malassezia

149

3 things that cause Hydropic Degeneration

1. Lupus erythematosus
2. Dermatomyositis
3. Drug eruptions

150

2 things that cause ballooning degeneration

Poxviruses
FMD virus

151

What viruses commonly cause vesicle formation? (5)

Herpes
Pox
Morbilli
Rhabdo
Picorna

152

Pathogenesis of epidermitis

exocytosis--> spongiosis --> pustules

153

3 common causes of pustule formation.

1. ectoparasite bites
2. pemphigoid rxns
3. feline eosinophilic dz

154

2 common causes of exocytosis of lymphocytes.

lupus erythematosus
Malassezia sp. infections

155

Gross lesion associated w/ K9 superficial pyoderma.

collarettes

156

Common bacterial causes of impetigo in puppies: (4)

S. aureus, S. intermedius, S. pseudointermedius, & S. schleiferi (all are coagulase + species)

157

Gross lesions of impetigo.

multifocal pustules & crusts

158

Histological features of impetigo

NON-FOLLICULAR subcorneal pustules w/ serocellular crusting

159

K9 mucocutaneous pyoderma is an example of ______ pyoderma.

superficial

160

Exudative epidermitis of pigs is also known as? Cause?

Greasy Pig Dz
Staph. hyicus

161

Common name for dermatophilosis? Cause?

Rain Rot/Scald
D. congolensis

162

Gross lesions of dermatophilosis

papules, pustules & THICK CRUSTS that coalesce w/ matted wool/hair

163

Cause of Ovine fleece rot? Predisposes sheep to?

Pseudomonas spp.
myiasis (fly strike)

164

Deep pyoderma occurs most frequently in what species? cause?

dog
Staph pseudointermedius

165

Folliculitis often leads to _____.

furunculosis

166

Furunculosis results in:

infection & FB type inflammation

167

Species that commonly gets furunculosis.

dogs

168

SQ abscessation is most common in what species?

cats

169

Necrotizing fasciitis is known as ___. common or rare?

flesh-eating bacT syndrome
rare - in dogs & people

170

Cause of Necrotizing fasciitis.

Strep. canis

171

Why can necrotizing fasciitis be life threatening?

due to concurrent septic shock

172

How do mycobacteria survive inside macrophages?

preventing the fusion of phagosomes & lysomes

173

2 acid-fast stains used to ID mycobacteria.

Ziehl-Neelsen stain
Fite-Faraco stain

174

Obligate intracellular parasites cause ___ & _____.

tuberculosis, leprosy

175

M. tuberculosis & M. bovis _____ cause cutaneous lesions.

rarely

176

Cause of feline leprosy

M. lepraemurium via bites from cats or rats

177

Opportunistic pathogens like saprophytic Mycobacterium sp. cause _____.

mycobacteriosis

178

Non-mycobacterial granulomas are caused by _____ & ______.

non-filamentous bacT granulomas (Botryomycosis), filamentous bacT granulomas

179

4 examples of idiopathic granulomatous dermatitis (non-infectious)

sterile granuloma
pyogranuloma syndrome
juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatits
lymphadenitis

180

3 things that can cause lymphadenitits.

juvenile cellulitis
juvenile pyoderma
puppy strangles

181

Sterile granuloma & pyogranuloma syndrome are common in ____; rare in ___ & ______

dogs
horse & cats

182

Gross lesions of sterile granuloma & pyogranuloma syndrome.

single or mulitfocal papuples, plaques or nodules on head & extremities

183

Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis & lymphadenitis occurs in what animals?

puppies < 4 mo.

184

Lesions of juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis & lymphadenitis.

similar to sterile granuloma & pyogranuloma syndrome; includes lymph node involvement; pathogenesis unknown

185

4 mechanisms affecting blood vessles.

1. bacT embolization
2. bacT toxins
3. direct infection of vascular endothelial cells
4. Type III hypersensitivity (immune complex vasculitits)

186

E. rhusiopathiae creates skin lesions by ____ ____.

bacT embolization

187

6 bacT w/ cutaneous lesions

R. rickettsia - RM spotted fever
Strep. canis
Staph. aureus - TSS in dogs
E. coli
Salmonella
E. rhusiopathiae - Diamond skin dz

188

Septicemic salmonellosis causes _____.

endotoxin-induced venous thrombosis = cyanosis & necrosis of distal extremities

189

E. coli produces _____. Causes?

Shiga toxin 2e
endothelial damage, vasculitis, resultant edema dz of pigs

190

Strep. canis & staph. aureus produce ______.

EXOtoxin

191

R. rickettsia directly infects ____. causes?

endothelial cells
vasculitis & necrotic skin lesions