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Flashcards in Repro Path additional cards Deck (64):
1

What would you see in the repro tract of a mini schnauzer with PMDS?

normal external genitalia
testes attached to cranial end of uterine horns
have: oviducts, uterus, cervix & anterior vagina

2

What causes PMDS?

lack of MIS or receptor --> persistent Mullerian ducts

3

Where is the Wolffian duct derived from?

mesonephric ridge

4

Where is the Mullerian ducts derived from?

lateral surface of mesonephric ridge

5

How is the undifferentiated gonad formed?

primordial germ cells migrate from embryonic yolk sack to genital ridge

6

Mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts give rise to?

epididymis, ductus deferens, & seminal vesicles

7

The urogenital sinus of males gives rise to?

prostate & bulbourethral glands

8

Paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct gives rise to?

oviduct, uterus, cervix & ANTERIOR vagina

9

Urogenital sinus of females gives rise to?

CAUDAL vagina

10

How is sexual differentiation achieved in the male?

1. gene on Y chromosome --> SRY--> testes w/ Sertoli cells
2. testes produce MIF --> regresses Mullerian ducts
3. Leydig cells --> testosterone --> Wolffian ducts remain
4. Testosterone --> DHT --> external genitalia

11

How is sexual differentiation achieved in the female?

1. No Y chromosome--> no MIH--> Wolffian ducts regress

12

Which type of pseudohermaphrodite is more common?

male w/ male gonadal tissue

13

What is the best example of chimera in vet med?

Freemartin
(female & male calf twins)

14

Pathogenesis of Freemartinism?

1. mixing of blood between male & female calf twins
2. partial masculinization of female --> sertoli cells --> MIF
3. uterus & vagina never connect
4. external genitalia is often female

15

What are the 2 forms of bacterial oophoritis? (RARE)

1. pyogenic --> D & C--> ascending infection
2. granulomatous --> M. bovis & B. suis

16

Which species most commonly gets paraovarian cysts?

mares

17

Cystic ovarian dz. is most common in what animals? Manifestation?

dairy cows
Anesturs

18

What is believed to cause Cystic Ovarian Dz?

Lack of a LH surge

19

Cystic ovarian dz can also be an important source of infertility for _____.

sows

20

What causes Cystic Ovarian dz in sows?

1. multiple large cysts --> 2-3 cm diameter--> progesterone --> irregular cycles
small multiple cysts--> 1 cm --> "grapes" --> estrogen & irregular cycles

21

When does cystic ovarian dz affect dairy cows?

60 post partum
(more frequent in winter months)

22

Most common ovarian neoplasm in the mare & cow?

Granulosa cell tumor
often benign
can be fxnal --> estrogens, androgens or inhibin

23

Fxnal Granulosa Cell Tumor secreting Inhibin will cause what?

Anestrus in the mare or cow (less frequent)

24

Fxnal Granulosa Cell Tumor secreting Androgens will cause what?

Stallion-like behavior in the mare

25

Fxnal Granulosa Cell Tumor secreting Estrogens will cause what?

nymphomania in the mare

26

What 2 species is Uterine Prolapse common?

ruminants & sows

27

What is an important cause of infertility in domestic animals?

uterine inflammation
(most from ascending infections)

28

When is the uterus more susceptible to infection?

under the influence of PROGESTERONE

29

How can bacteria gain entry to the uterus?

result of abnormal delivery of dead or diseased fetus

30

Persistent penile frenulum is most common in what animal?

Bull

31

Pathogenesis of persistent penile frenulum?

CT of frenulum does not rupture causing ventral deviation of the penis once it's extended

32

Common causes of orchitis/epididymitis in bulls?

B. abortus
Trueperlla pyogenes
Staph. sp.
Strep sp
E. coli

33

Common causes of orchitis/epididymitis in rams?

B. ovis
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

34

Common causes of orchitis/epididymitis in bucks?

B. melitensis
T. pyogenes
C. pseudotuberculosis

35

Common causes of orchitis/epididymitits in dogs?

B. canis
E. coli
P. vulgaris
B. dermatitidis

36

Common causes of orchitis/epididymitis in boars?

B. suis
T. pyogenes
Strep zooepidemicus/equisimilis

37

Common causes of orchitits/epididymitits in stallions?

Salmonella
Strep. equi/zooepidemicus

38

What species frequently gets seminal vesiculitits?

bull --> reduces semen viability
due to T. pyogenes, Staph, Strep., Mycoplasma or IBR & BVD

39

3 most common testicular neoplasms in dogs?

1. Interstitial Cell Tumor (Leydig cell tumor) --> gonadal stromal
2. Seminoma --> germ cell
3. Sertoli Cell Tumor --> gonadal stromal

40

What is a teratoma? Are they common? in what?

1. Testicular germ cell tumor composed of multiple tissues that are foreign to the part in which they arise
2. rare
3. young horses that are cryptorchid

41

Pathogenesis of TVT in dogs?

1. infecting cells are transplanted like a graft
2. tumor has 59 chromosomes (normal dog cells=78)
3. "promiscuous" dog populations
4. often spontaneously regress if dog is healthy
5. metastasis can occur

42

Category I biopsy on the Kenney-Doig Endometrial Biopsy Scale?

essentially normal
inflammation or fibrosis is slight & sparsley scattered

43

Predicted foaling rate of a mare w/ a Cat. I biopsy?

80-90%

44

Category IIA on the Kenney-Doig Endometrial Biopsy Scale?

mild, scattered inflammation & fibrosis
endometrial atrophy in late breeding

45

Predicted foaling rate of a mare w/ a Cat. IIA biopsy?

50-80%

46

Category IIB on Kenney-Doig Endometrial Biopsy Scale?

Moderate, scattered inflammation & fibrosis

47

Predicted foaling rate of a mare w/ a Cat. IIB biopsy?

10-50%

48

Category III on Kenney-Doig Endometrial Biopsy Scale?

severe irreversible changes

49

Predicted foaling rate of a mare w/ a Cat. III biopsy?

10%

50

Which animals have diffuse placentas? (A)

horse & pig

51

Which animals have zonary placentas? (A)

dog & cat

52

Which animals have cotyledonary placentas? (A)

ruminants

53

Which animals have epitheliochorial placentas? (H)

horse, pig & ruminants

54

Which animals have endotheliochorial placentas? (H)

dog & cat

55

What is the most common route of entry of bacteria into the mammary gland?

teat orifice or teat duct

56

What 2 ways can Mycoplasma enter the mammary gland?

Hematogenous spread or teat orifice

57

What are the coagulate (-) Staph.?

S. xylosis
S. warneri
S. simulans

58

How does Trueperella enter the mammary gland?

through teat orifice (ascending) or deep cutaneous wound (suppurative mastitis)

59

What 2 things cause viral mastitis in small ruminants?

Sheep = Visna-Maedi
Goats= CAE

60

Most common cause of infertility in the male?

testicular atrophy/degeneration

61

Preputial laceration & prolapse is common in what animals?

Brahma & Brahma-crossed bulls due to their excessive length & volume of preputial sheath

62

What is $5 word for inflammation of the penis & prepuce?

balanoposthitis

63

Which animal can get Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia?

older unspayed dogs that have not been mated

64

What is commonly associated w/ Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia?

pyometra &infertility problems