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Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (31):
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Integumentary

Largest organ system in the body is compromised following structure
Skin, hair, nails

1

Structures work together to provide the folllowing functions within body

Protection from injury, fluid loss, and microorganism (bacteria, virus, fungus, yeast).
Temperature regulation
Fluid balance
Sensation

2

Skin

Two layers make up human skin: dermis and epidermis.

3

Epidermis composed of

4 to 5 layers called stratum. The number stratum varies based where the epidermis is located

4

Stratum corneum

Also called the horny layer; outermost layer

5

Stratum lucidum (palms and soles)

Normally found only on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Clear layer

6

Stratum Granulosum

Granular layer of cells. They accumulate two types of granules; keratohyaline granules and lamellated granules.

7

Stratum spinosum

Composed of prickle cells

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Stratum basale ( stratum germinativum)

Deepest of the five layers, made of basal cells.

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Dermis

Lies on the subcutaneous ( beneath the skin) tissue. Located just under the epidermis. It has two layers of strata :

10

Stratum papillare

Thin superficial layer interlocked with the epidermis

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Stratum reticulare

Thick layer of dense , irregular connective tissue

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Dermis contains Many important structures nourishing and innervating the skin

Vessels carrying blood and lymph
Nerves and nerve endings
Glands
Hair follicles

13

Subcutaneous tissue

Is known as the hypodermis but not consider a layer of the skin. Composed of fatty or adipose tissue, plus some areolar issue (loose connective tissue consist of a meshwork of collagen, elastic tissue, and reticular fibers.

14

Hypodermis serves

Protect the underlying structures, prevent loss of body heat, and anchor the skin to the underlying musculature.
The fibrous connective tissue, referred to as superficial fascia, is included in this layer.

15

Hair

has two separate structures;
Follicle and shaft.

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Follicle contains several layers

At the base is a bulb-like projection, called papilla

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There are capillaries nourishing the bulb

Cells in the bulb divide every 23 to 72 hrs

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Inner and outer sheaths protect and mold the growing hair shaft surrounding the follicle

The inner sheaths ends at the opening of the sebaceous gland, which secrets sebum; it may pocket, causing benign lesions on the scalp

19

Removal of these benign cysts are reported using

CPT codes from 11400-11471 range.

20

Erector pili

Muscle attaches to the outer sheath and causes hair to stand up when it contracts.

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The shaft composed of keratin in 3 layers

The medulla, cortex, and cuticle.

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Pigment cells

In the cortex and medulla give hair it characteristic color

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Nails

Fingernail is made of keratin acting as protective plate mad as counterforce to the fingertip to increase sensory input of touch

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Nail is divided into 6 specific parts

The root, nail bed, nail plate, eponychium (cuticle), perionychium, mad hyponychium

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The root

AKA germinal matrix, lies beneath the skin behind the fingernail and extends several millimeters into the finger. Produces most of the volume of the nail and nail bed and it's edge is the white, crescent-shaped structure called the lunula

26

The nail bed

The sterile matrix, extends from the edge of the lunula to the hyponychium . It contains blood vessels, nerves, and melanocytes (melanin-producing cells).

27

Nail plate is the actual fingernail Made of translucent keratin.

Blood vessels underneath give the nail it's pink appearance; the grooves along the inner length of the nail plate anchor the nail to the nail bed.



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Eponychium ( cuticle)

Between the skin of the finger and nail plate fusing the skin of the finger to the nail plate

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Perionychium aka paronychial edge

Is the skin overlying the nail plate on its sides and is the site of hangnails, ingrown nails, and an infection of the skin called paronychia

30

Hyponychium

is the junction between the free edge of the nail and the skin