Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (31):
Largest organ system in the body is compromised following structure
Skin, hair, nails
Structures work together to provide the folllowing functions within body
Protection from injury, fluid loss, and microorganism (bacteria, virus, fungus, yeast).
Two layers make up human skin: dermis and epidermis.
Epidermis composed of
4 to 5 layers called stratum. The number stratum varies based where the epidermis is located
Also called the horny layer; outermost layer
Stratum lucidum (palms and soles)
Normally found only on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Granular layer of cells. They accumulate two types of granules; keratohyaline granules and lamellated granules.
Composed of prickle cells
Stratum basale ( stratum germinativum)
Deepest of the five layers, made of basal cells.
Lies on the subcutaneous ( beneath the skin) tissue. Located just under the epidermis. It has two layers of strata :
Thin superficial layer interlocked with the epidermis
Thick layer of dense , irregular connective tissue
Dermis contains Many important structures nourishing and innervating the skin
Vessels carrying blood and lymph
Nerves and nerve endings
Is known as the hypodermis but not consider a layer of the skin. Composed of fatty or adipose tissue, plus some areolar issue (loose connective tissue consist of a meshwork of collagen, elastic tissue, and reticular fibers.
Protect the underlying structures, prevent loss of body heat, and anchor the skin to the underlying musculature.
The fibrous connective tissue, referred to as superficial fascia, is included in this layer.
has two separate structures;
Follicle and shaft.
Follicle contains several layers
At the base is a bulb-like projection, called papilla
There are capillaries nourishing the bulb
Cells in the bulb divide every 23 to 72 hrs
Inner and outer sheaths protect and mold the growing hair shaft surrounding the follicle
The inner sheaths ends at the opening of the sebaceous gland, which secrets sebum; it may pocket, causing benign lesions on the scalp
Removal of these benign cysts are reported using
CPT codes from 11400-11471 range.
Muscle attaches to the outer sheath and causes hair to stand up when it contracts.
The shaft composed of keratin in 3 layers
The medulla, cortex, and cuticle.
In the cortex and medulla give hair it characteristic color
Fingernail is made of keratin acting as protective plate mad as counterforce to the fingertip to increase sensory input of touch
Nail is divided into 6 specific parts
The root, nail bed, nail plate, eponychium (cuticle), perionychium, mad hyponychium
AKA germinal matrix, lies beneath the skin behind the fingernail and extends several millimeters into the finger. Produces most of the volume of the nail and nail bed and it's edge is the white, crescent-shaped structure called the lunula
The nail bed
The sterile matrix, extends from the edge of the lunula to the hyponychium . It contains blood vessels, nerves, and melanocytes (melanin-producing cells).
Nail plate is the actual fingernail Made of translucent keratin.
Blood vessels underneath give the nail it's pink appearance; the grooves along the inner length of the nail plate anchor the nail to the nail bed.
Eponychium ( cuticle)
Between the skin of the finger and nail plate fusing the skin of the finger to the nail plate
Perionychium aka paronychial edge
Is the skin overlying the nail plate on its sides and is the site of hangnails, ingrown nails, and an infection of the skin called paronychia