Internal and External factors of MEntal health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Internal and External factors of MEntal health Deck (23)
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Internal factors that influence mental health?

Biological, genetics
physical health
Immune system


External Factors that influence mental health?

Social relationships
Employment status
Life events (traumatic)


The vendiagram of Ris factors

Biological, Psychological and social risk factors


Biological risk factors

Genetic Vulnerability- genes passed on by our parents, more susceptible
eg: Schizophrenia
Biological relative with schizophrenia have a 10% risk of developing the disorder, as compared with schizophrenia has a 40%-50% risk.
-Poor response to medication due to genetic factors
-Poor sleep
- Long term substance use


Psychological risk factors

Rumination- is when people overthink or obsess about situations or life events
- has been linked to incidence of depression, anxiety and PTSD
Impaired reasoning and memory- cognitive problems that can contribute to development and progression of mental disorders.
Stress, chronic and acute stress contributes to mental disorders
Poor self efficacy- general coping strategies are poor, less likely to seek help


Social Risk factors

Disorganised attachment- struggle with relationships, avoidant personality. (attachment is the emotional bond that forms between an infant and caregiver)
- Loss of a significant relationship- family, friend, can make people more vulnerable to mental disorder.
- Stigma is a mark of disgrace or disgust that sets someone apart from others- Stigma as a barrier to accessing treatment- 25-50% sufferers don't seek treatment.


WHAT is Cumulative risk?

All these factors interacting together to precipitate a mental health disorder


What are the 4 Ps?

Predisposing factors; Factors that increase vulnerability to developing mental health problems
Precipitating Factors; Factors that trigger the onset or exacerbation of mental health problems.
Perpetuating factors; Factors that inhibit recovery from mental health problems
Protective Factors; prevent the occurrence or recurrence of mental health problems


Predisposing Factors...

Factors that increase vulnerability to developing mental health problems:
- Genetics
- Hormones
- Temperament
- Poverty


Precipitating factors...

Factors that trigger the onset or exacerbation of mental health problems:
- Environmental trigger
- Significant life event
- Trauma, accident, injury


Perpetuating factors...

Factors that inhibit recovery from mental health problems:
- Poor health
- Stigma
- Lack of social support
- Lack of resources


Protective Factors...

Prevent the occurrence or recurrence of mental health problems:
- Good health/sleep/exercise
- Hormonal balance/ no family incidence
- Resilience
- Resources
- Strong social support and network


Contributing biological factors to stress?

Stress response
Long term potentiation-physical occurrences that happen in the brain as result of repeated stimulation of the neural pathway during learning (amygdala- initiating and processing emotional responses such as fear. Hippocampus-Involved in formation of declarative memories)
GABA Dysfunction- GABA regulates anxiety, sleep amd arousal. Plays a role in anxiety as it acts like a calming agent or 'brake' to the excitatory neurotransmitters that lead to anxiety.


Contributing Psychological factors?

Behavioural models: phobias are influenced by environmental factors
- SPecific phobia may be learnt through classical conditioning and maintained by operant conditioning. (P1 Little Albert developed a specific phobia of rats through classical conditioning. P2 Avoiding the -feared stimulus -rat, far is reduced - negative reinforcement = happy feeling- which maintains the phobia) eg: dentist, injections

Cognitive Models: Emphasises thought process on feelings and behaviour
Cognitive Bias- A tendency to think in a way that involves errors of judgement and faulty decision making.
Memory Bias- Memory encoded inaccurately and distorted, tend to remember the negative or threatening information about the phobic stimulus
Catastrophic Thinking- Over estimating the threat, irrational, obsessive thinking. Thinking any dog you encounter will attack you and leave you with permanent facial disfigurement.


Contributing social factors ?

Environmental triggers: Direct exposure to a traumatic or distressing event eg: bitten by a dog
- Witnessing someone experience a traumatic event: eg see someone get bitten by dog
- Reading or hearing about a traumatic event:eg hearing a story about someone being bitten by a dog
-Stigma around seeking treatment: Mark of disgrace, labels and separates a person so less likely to seek help due to shame or embarrassment.


treatments for specific phobias?

Evidence based interventions;
Anti Anxiety medication- benzodiazapenes, a group of short acting drugs.
- Agonist- stimulates the GABA receptors, enhance effects of GABA (not antagonist as in study design).
- Anti anxiety and sleep inducing properties
- Commonly referred to as sedatives, mild tranquillisers or depressant, as they slow down CNS activity
- Also induce drowsiness, can be highly addictive and long term use is not recommended.

Breathing Re-training- slow breathing technique to manage effects of hyperventilation, calms nervous system and lowers anxiety

Exercise: helps reduce stress
- Produces beta-endorphins, along with serotonin and dopamine and improves our mood and lowers anxiety.
- Exercise burns up adrenalin and excess cortisol which is released during stress response.


Psychological interventions?

CBT: uses combination of verbal and behaviour modification techniques to help people change irrational patterns of thinking that create phobias
- Focus on helping the person change negative thoughts and behaviours and replace them with more positive, realistic ones.

Systematic desensitisation- graduated exposure, teach relaxation techniques.


Social interventions?

-Challenging unrealistic thoughts (ie, irrational fear)
- Discouraging avoidance behaviours which can act as a negative reinforcer and strengthen the phobic behaviour.


Biological factors as protecting factors...

Adequate diet


Psychological protective factors...

To maintain or improve mental health
change negative thoughts to positive thoughts
Angelee Duckworth; GRIT


Social Protective factors...

Decrease stress
Emotional and /or tangible
Increases psychological wellbeing


WHat is the Transtheoretical model of change?

Accesses an individual's readiness to change by looking at the different stages an individual may go through as they move towards a healthier behaviour


Components of Transtheoretical model?

Precontemplation: No intention to take action within 6 months
Contemplation: going to do something about it within 6 months
Preparation: Intends to take action within next 30 days
Action: Individual changes his or her behaviour in less than 6 months
Maintenance: Individual changes behaviour for more than 6 months and works to prevent relapse and consolidate the gains attained

Relapses do occur, go back to one of the first 3