Flashcards in Internal Pressure Group democracy Deck (25):
What did Wyn Grant say about pressure group internal democracy?
"We need [to be able] to ask questions about whom they represent and how their policies arrived at"
What is an example of an entirely centralised pressure group regardless of having individual membership?
How are pressure group officers chosen?
They are appointed rather than elected by the groups members on an OMOV basis.
Leading pressure groups are often not directly accountable to members
How do pressure groups make decisions?
-Not by members
-By a central committee or board which is itself unelected
Which 2 pressure groups does Neil McNaughton suggest are particularly poor at consulting their members over questions of policy and direction?
What does Neil McNaughton suggest about the organisation of pressures groups such as the BMA and AA?
that they reflect elitism rather than pluralism
Why have the sectional group trade unions been forced to become more internally democratic?
as a result of employment and union legislation passed in the 1980's, such as the requirement to hold secret ballots before national strike action
Do sectional groups such as those non-membership groups have internal democracy?
they have little internal democracy
Why are individuals usually in control of cause groups as opposed to the members?
cause groups often start as a small group of committed individuals and control often remains with these individuals or their chosen successors even when the group's membership expands significantly
According to who is Greenpeace described as a hierarchical organisation that allows little democratic control over the direction of its campaigns ?
Wyn Grant 2002
What 4 things does Wyn Grant (2002) point out about the hierarchal structure of Greenpeace?
-It has a strictly bureaucratic, if not authoritarian, internal structure
-Both at international level and national chapter the party is run by a small group of people
-Local action groups are completely dependant on the central body
-the rank and file is excluded from all decisions
How do pressure groups occur which makes them good for democracy?
They occur naturally under any system of government. People have a natural desire to unite in protection of their own interests or in advancing a particular cause
How are pressure groups good for democracy between elections?
They allow people to organise and articulate their views between the elections
When party membership is waning, how are pressure groups good for democracy?
They provide an additional avenue for participation at a time when more traditional forms are waning
How are pressure groups good for democracy particularly in a post-ideological age of catch-all parties?
The Pressure groups allow a wider range of opinions to be represented than is possible through political parties
How are pressure groups good for democracy through moderating the views of their more extreme members?
because the individuals with extreme views might never have changed their views challenged and changed
How is the fact pressure groups provide strength a good thing for democracy's?
allows opinions to be expressed as opposed to simply counting the number of people supporting a view as happens with elections
How are pressure groups good for democracy's though using their expert knowledge?
They have a role in educating the public and providing the government with expertise
How are some pressure groups not good for democracy due to 'passive' or ' cheque-book membership'?
This means that the quality of participation offered is often low even when membership is high. Many members do little more than pay their annual membership fee
How are some pressure groups bad for democracy with lacking legitimacy?
because they exhibit low levels of internal democracy
How are some pressure groups bad for democracy, especially core insider groups?
many non-membership groups are simply fronts for wealthy and influential business interests who many have little interest in the greater public good
Financially, why are pressure groups not good for democracy?
Pressure groups do not compete on an equal financial footing and poorer groups find it far harder to access the policy-making process
How are pressure groups not good for democracy due to the issue of human resources?
Groups tend to be more successful when they have articulate, educated leading members
Many have argued that this tends to favour groups run by the middle classes over those set up by working classes
Why are pressure groups not good for democracy due to the disproportionate size and merit to their cause?
The small minority of a population should not be given a disproportionate influence on the decision making process undermining long term planning and joined up government