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Flashcards in Pressure Group Behaviour Deck (46)
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What are access points , or 'points of leverage' ?

The points within the political system at which pressure groups and other interested parties can exert pressure on those who hold political power


Where is power concentrated in a unitary system?

at the centre


Are there more access points in a unitary system or federal?

federal system


Where is power in a federal system?

sovereign power over different areas of policy is held at different levels of government


Which types of systems offer a great range of meaningful access points to pressure groups?

systems that incorporate a clear separation of powers and an entrenched system of checks and balances such as the USA


What 3 factors have increased the number of access points in the UK over recent years?

-Scottish Parliament with primary legislative powers
-Creation of assemblies and executives in Wales, Northern Ireland and London
-Independent UKSC from the HOL


What powers do the Scottish Parliament have?

primary legislative powers


What are the 4 traditional methods of pressure groups?

-letter writing campaigns
-conventional lobbying


What pressure group complied a petition of more than 2 million names in the mid 1980s and employed postcard campaigns in 1989 and 1990?

Anti-abortion organisation , Life


What did the anti-abortion organisation , Life, do in 1989 and 1990 as a traditional method of pressure groups ?

compiled a petition of more than 2 million names in mid 1980s and employed a post card campaign in 1989 and 1990 against the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act


What did the anti-abortion organisation , Life, campaign against?

the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act


What were there marches against in 1990 which were influential as a traditional method of pressure groups?

Marches against the Poll Tax


What is lobbying?

At a simple level, individuals or members of pressure groups may write to a government minister or visit the Palace of Westminster to lobby in person those who have influence over the groups area of interest or expertise


For a fee, what will professional lobby firms offer?

these organisations will direct professional lobbyists to use their contacts on behalf of the pressure group in question


Give an example of a professional lobby firm

the one time lobbying group Ian Greer Associates


What did the one time lobbying group Ian Greer Associates do ?

arranged the initial contact between Mohamed Al Fayed and the Conservative MP and junior trade minister Neil Hamilton


What influence do core insider groups have over influencing the legislate process directly?

have the ability to influence the formation of policy at an early stage though consultation with ministers, civil servants and government appointed bodies working on legislative proposals


What do some larger groups do to attempt to influence the legislative process directly?

they employ lobbyists to pursue their legislative goals and maintain permanent Westminster offices


In what 2 ways can pressure groups embarking on legal action work ?

1) the court finds that the government has acted in a manner beyond the authority granted (ultra vires)
2) such action raises public awareness of a particular issue, win or lose


What pressure group is an example of when they have embarked on legal action and raised public awareness for their cause?

the Pro-Life Alliance's challenge over the application of the hUman fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990


Why is working through a political party sometimes difficult to do?

the government is likely to be subject to far greater demands on its time and policy-formulation is often more top down


When is the easiest time for pressure groups to work through a political party?

when they are in opposition


Give an example of when a pressure group has worked through a political party in the opposition

Charter 88 and Labour pre 1997


What are direct action campaigns?

It starts from the premise that conventional methods of influencing policy are flawed and that more visible, direct protests may offer the best opportunities for success


Why do some pressure groups believe that using direct action will offer the best opportunities for success? (2)

because they make politicians taken notice and can broaden public support


What are 3 examples of direct action ?

-civil disobedience


What do critics argue against direct action campaigns?

that the rise of single-issue, direct action politics undermines our system of representative democracy


What do some critics believe that that the rise of single-issue, direct action politics undermines our system of representative democracy ?

because such campaigns prevent government from implementing their programmes and from pursuing policies that address the nation and not just sectional interests


What are 6 examples of actual direct action campaigns

-anti-road protests
-campaigns against live animal exports
-fuel protests
-campaigns against fox hunting
-against vivisection and airport expansion


what are 3 ways some pressure groups use paid media?

-whole page advertisements in national press
-direct mail
-producing and airing t.v advertisements