Flashcards in Interpreting CXRs Deck (23):
Where can the costophrenic recess be found?
At the margin between the diaphragm and the ribs.
What does a lobar collapse look like?
Displacement of the horizontal fissure is indicative of lobar collapse
What happens if there is volume loss in the right upper lobe (as a result of collapse, for instance)
Horizontal fissure is displaced upwards
What happens if there is volume loss of the right lower lobe (collapse)
The horizontal fissure is displaced downwards
What is consolidation?
If alveoli and small airways fill with dense material, the lung is said to be consolidated
This may be due to infection (pneumonia, pus), fluid (pulmonary oedema), blood (haemorrhage) or cells (cancer)
What does a consolidated lung look like?
If an area of the lung is consolidated it becomes dense and white
If larger airways are spared, they are of relatively low density (blacker
What is an air bronchogram?
When large airways are spared of consolidation, they become less dense
Characteristic sign of consolidation
What is a pleural effusion?
• A collection of fluid in the pleural space • Fluid gathers in lower part of chest, according to patient's position
What will a pleural effusion obscure if patient sits upright?
• Costophrenic angle/Hemidiaphragm
What is a pneumothorax?
May form when there is air trapped in the pleural space This may occur spontaneously, or as a result of underlying lung disease
What is the most common cause of pneumothorax?
Trauma, with laceration of the visceral pleura by fractured rib
What is a tension pneumothorax?
If there is tracheal or mediastinal shift away from the pneumothorax, the pneumothorax is said to be under tension
What can displace the trachea?
Anything that increases pressure or volume in the hemithorax will push the hemithorax and diaphragm away from that side.
Any disease that causes volume loss in one hemithorax will pull the trachea over towards that side
What does this show? Picture 5
What is an asbestos plaque?
• Calcified asbestos related pleural plaques have a characteristic appearance and are generally considered to be benign
What causes lung hyperexpansion?
What does lung hyperexpansion look like?
• Blunting of both costophrenic angles and flattened hemidiaphragms
What is pneumoperitoneum?
• Lungs are normal, but air is seen under the diaphragm. Sign of bowel perforation,
What is a simple pneumothorax?
• Pleural defect causes air to enter the potential pleural space and break the pressur potential, compromising lung inflation
How is a simple pneumothorax different from a tension?
• Tension involves the formation of one way valve at point of injury, perimitting air to enter but not to escape.
What is the cardiac index?
• The widest part of the heart and ribcage are measured laterally. • If heart is over 50% of the width of the thorax, it is enlarged
What is the ABC system of systematic x ray analysis?
Airway Breathing Circulation Everything else