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Flashcards in deck_1673841 Deck (33):
1

What three factors determine rate of gas exchange?

• Area available for exchange • Resistance to diffusion Gradient of partial pressure

2

How does diffusion resistance change?

• Depends on the nature of the barrier ○ Cells, water • What gas is moving through it ○ O2/CO2

3

Is area a limiting factor in the lungs?

• No, lungs have a gas exchange area of 80m2 - huge area

4

Outline the structures which provide diffusion resistance in the lungs

• The alveolar epithelial cell • Interstitial fluid • Capillary endothelial cell • Plasma • RBC membrane

5

Overall, what do gases have to diffuse through from the alveoli to reach the blood cells?

• 5 cell membranes • 3 layers of intracellular fluid • 2 layers of extra cellular fluid

6

How fast do gases move through other gases? How does this relate to O2 and CO2?

• At rate inversely proportional to molecular weight ○ CO2 moves slower than O2

7

How fast do gases move through liquids? How does this relate to O2 and CO2?

• At rate proportional to solubility ○ CO2 much more soluble than O2, moves 21 times faster

8

Is the rate of diffusion of CO2 a limiting factor?

• No, O2

9

How fast is O2 exchange

• 0.5 seconds

10

How long do blood cells stay in capillary?

How long do blood cells stay in capillary? • 1 second

11

What is the pO2 and pCO2 in the blood leaving capillaries in a normal lung?

• Same as in alveolar air

12

Where does exchange occur in lungs?

• Across the alveolar membrane

13

How is alveolar air different to atomspheric air?

• Less oxygen • More carbon dioxide

14

What is the partial pressure of O2 in the alveolar air?

• 13.3 kPa

15

What is the partial pressure of pCO2 in the alveolar air?

• 5.3 kPa

16

What is the pO2 in the venous blood which returns to the lungs from the body?

• 6.0 kPa

17

What is the pCO2 in the venous blood which returns to the lungs from the body?

• 6.5 kPa

18

Why does O2 move from alveoli to blood?

• Diffusion gradient • 13.3 - 6.0

19

Why does CO2 move from blood to alveoli

• Diffusion gradient • 6.5 kPa --> 5.3 kPa

20

What does alveolar ventilation determine?

• Gas composition of arterial blood • And therefore oxygen supply to tissues

21

What is ventilation of the lungs?

• Expansion of lungs • Increases volume of ○ Respiratory bronchioles ○ Alveolar ducts • So air flows down airways to them

22

What parts of the lungs expand with ventilation?

• Respiratory bronchioles • Alveolar ducts

23

Does fresh air enter the alveoli in the lungs?

• No, reaches as far as the respiratory and terminal bronchioles

24

Why would it be bad to have air going directly into alveoli?

• Make the blood impossibly alkaline on way in, very acidic on way out

25

How can we measure ventilation?

• Using a spirometer

26

What is a spirometer?

• A closed chamber is which gas is held at constant pressure, but the volume of which can change with ventilation

27

What is anatomical/serial dead space?

• Volume of the airways • Measured by nitrogen washout (typically 0.15l)

28

Outline the nitrogen washout test

• Patient takes a maximum inspiration of 100% oxygen • Mixes with nitrogen naturally present in alveolar air • Air in conducting pathway will still be filled with pure O2 • Person exhales through one way valve - nitrogen content is measured • A graph can be drawn plotting Nitrogen% against expired volume

29

What is distributive/alveolar dead space?

• Some parts of the lung are not airways and do not support gas exchange ○ Dead or damaged alveoli ○ Alveoli with poor perfusion (ventilation/perfusion ratio)

30

What is physiological dead space?

• Serial dead space + distributive dead space (0.17l)

31

What is alveolar ventilation rate?

• Dead space must be completely filled with air at each breath • Dead space ventilation rate ○ Dead space volume x respiratory rate • Subtracted from pulmonary ventilation rate to get AVR

32

How is physiological dead space measured?

• pCO2 of expired alveolar air • Alveolar air is diluted by dead space air

33

Give the calculation for alveolar ventilation rate

• Pulmonary ventilation rate (tidal volume x RR) - Dead space ventilation rate (dead space volume x RR)