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Flashcards in deck_1373997 Deck (45):

What is the bony thorax made up of?

Thoracic vertebraeRibsIntercostal spacesSternumCostal Cartilages


How many ribs and thoracic vertebrae in the bony thorax?



What is the sternum made up of?

• Manubrium• Body• Xiphisternum


How are ribs 1-7 connected to the sternum?

• Via the costal cartilages


How are ribs 8-10 connected?

• Connected to the costal cartilages above


Why are ribs 11 & 12 known as "floating ribs"

• End free in the abdominal muscles


What is the sternal angle?

• The junction of the manubrium and body


How can we identify the 2nd costal cartilage?

Articulates with the ribs at the level of the costal cartilage


Outline the features of a typical rib and the number of articular facets on each

• The head - has 2 articular facets, for articular with corresponding vertebrae and vertebra above• Neck - Connects the head of the rib with the body• The tubercle - has 1 articular facet, articulation with transverse process of corresponding thoracic vertebra• The shaft - thin, flat and curved Costal groove of the shaft, protects intercostal nerves and vessels


What is the joint of the head of the ribs called?

Costoverterbral joint


What are the articulations involved in the costoverterbral joint?

• The head of the rib articulates with the body of the corresponding verterbra and the verterbra above


Where do the movements of the costoverterbral joints occur?

Joint of the rib headCostotranverse joint


What are the articulations of the costotransverse joint?

• The articular facet on the tubercle of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the corresponding vertebra


How many thoracic vertebrae are there and describe their size

• 12 thoracic vertebrae• Increase in size as you move inferiorlyAre medium sized.


Give some distinguishing features of thoracic vertebrae

• Have facets on the side of the body (demi facets) for articulating with the head of the ribs. • Have facets on the transverse process (except T11 & T12). Are costal facets for articulations with tubercles of the rib• Have small and circular vertebral foramen


How many processes do the thoracic vertebra have for articular connections?



Where are bilateral costal facets located?

• Ön the vertebral bodies, usually occurring in inferior and superior pairs Articulate with the heads of ribs


What are the costal facets?

• Found on the transverse processes for articulation with the tubercles of ribsNot found on inferior two or three thoracic vertebra


What is the joint of the rib head?

• The head of the rib articulates with the corresponding vertebra an the vertebra above


What is the costotransverse joint?

• The articular facet on the tubercle of the rib articulates with the tranverse process of the corresponding vertebra


Give some identifying features of the first rib

• First rib is shortest, broadest & most curved• The head has a single facet for articulation with T1• Two transversely directed grooves crossing its superior surface for subclavian vessels


What are the transverse grooves of the first rib seperated by?

Scalene tubercle


Give two distinct features of the second rib

• Two articular facets for articulation with the bodies of T1 and T2• Rough area on its upper surface, the tuberosity for serratus anterior


How are the 10th - 12th rib weird?

• Single articular facet for articulation with single vertebra


How are the 11th and 12th ribs different from the rest?

• Both floating• single facet on head• no tubercles


What muscles lie in the intercostal spaces?

• 3 intercostal muscles ○ External ○ Internal ○ Innermost


What is the neurovascular bundle?

• The neurovascular bundle runs in the costal groove at the lower border of the rib


What are the nerve roots of the intercostal rami?

T1 - T12


Where do the intercostal nerves run?

Internal & innermost intercostal muscles


What do the intercostal nerves supply?

• Supply intercostal muscles, the parietal pleura , overlying skin


Which way do the fibres of the external intercostal muscles run?

Downwards and anteriorly


What is the function of the external intercostal muscles?

• Inspiratory muscles• Its action elevates the ribs in a "bucket hand" type of movement to increase antero posterior and transverse diameters of the chest• Responsible for 30% of chest expansion during quiet respiration


What is the function of the internal intercostal muscles?

• Muscle fibres run downwards & posteriorly from the rib above to the rib below, pulling the ribs down from their position of chest expansionUsed during forced expiration


What is the function of the innermost intercostal muscles?

Similar to internal intercostal muscles but less well developed


What is the main muscle of inspiration?

The diaphragm


Give the three openings of the diaphragm

• Vena cava - T8• Oesophagus - T10Aorta - T12


Name the arteries which give rise to the anterior intercostal artery

• Brachiocephalic/Aortic Arch à Subclavian à Internal Thoracic/Musculophrenic (later) à Anterior Intercostal


Name the arteries which give rise to the posterior intercostal arteries

Brachiocephalic/Aortic Arch à Subclavian -> Costocervical trunk -> Superior intercostal -> Posterior intercostal


How do anterior intercostal arteries drain?

Into internal thoracic -> Subclavian


Where do the posterior arteries of the intercostal spaces drain?

• Into the azygous vein on the right and the hemizyagous vein on the left, and then into the inferior vena cava (some into internal thoracic vein)


What lies in the intercostal groove of the ribs?

Intercostal vein, artery and nerve (VAN)


Why is it clinically significant that the intercostal vein, artery and nerve run in the intercostal groove

• Important during pleural aspiration or insertion of a chest drain, when the needle should be inserted at the upper border of the rib to avoid injury


What do intercostal arteries supply?

• Intercostal muscles, parietal pleura and overlying skin


Where do the anterior intercostal arteries arise?

• The internal thoracic artery and its continuation (the musculophrenic artery)


Where do the intercostal nerves arise from?

• Anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerve T1-T12