Intestine 4 (test 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intestine 4 (test 1) Deck (33):
1

Enjoy this lovely chart for MORPHS! 

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2

T or F

Sometimes the morphologic diagnosis is the disease diagnosis. 

TRUE

3

What are some examples of morphs dx. that are the disease dx?

Lymphangiectasisa (dilation of lymphatic vessels)

Neoplasms: Intestinal adenocarcinoma

Diffuse Alimentary lymphoma 

4

What diarrhea causing pathogen is this?

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Coccidiosis 

5

What diarrhea causing pathogen does this look like?

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Cryptosporidiosis 

6

What diarrhea causing pathogen does this sound like?

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Giardiasis 

7

What diarrhea causing pathogen is this?

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Johne's Disease

Mycobacterium Avium subsp. Paratuberculosis 

8

What disease does this look like?

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IBD: inflammatory bowel disease 

9

What disease would you guess this is based off this profile?

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Diffuse Alimentary Lymphoma 

10

What disease does this profile sound like?

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Lymphangiectasia

11

What disease does this look like?

Note: no microscopic changes 

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SIBO-SMALL INTESTINAL BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH

12

Tenesmus is usually apart of what kind of Diarrhea?

Large bowel diarrhea

13

Where is the diarrhea coming from based on these signs?

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SMALL INTESTINE

14

Where is the diarrhea coming from?

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Large Intestine 

15

Can the large intestine compensate for small intestine lesions when it comes to diarrhea?

YES

16

What species has a great capacity to compensate for small intestinal lesions by increasing the fluid absorption in the Large intestine?

HORSES 

17

How do you overwhelm the large intestine's ability to compensate for fluid loss?

1. An overwhelming increase in the quantity of digesta: volume must be large enough to exceed the reserve capacity of the large intestine to absorb fluid, electrolytes (RARE)

2. A qualitative change in digesta: can alter functional abilities of the LI. (Dietary change--> change in intestinal flora-->increased lactate production-->decreased colonic pH-->decreased absorptive capability 

3. Disease that causes a decreased absorptive capacity: infiltrative disease (IBD, Johne's, lymphoma)

4. Reduced fecal transit time: stimulation of peristalsis by mechanical irritation or other factors=change in motility mechanism of diarrhea 

18

If you have proximal obstruction, what signs or consequences would you see?

Reflux of fluid into the stomach-->VOMITING, less distention 

NO vomiting in horses, Dehydration 

19

If you have a distal obstruction, what signs or consequences would you see?

Large quantities of fluid are sequestered; electrolyte loss, Dehydration is usually less severe 

20

What is a PROMINENT sign of obstruction in the GI?

Abdominal pain (colic) 

-stimulation of receptors in the mesentery, peritoneum and intestinal wall 

21

What can persistent/severe distension lead too?

-->mucosal damage and decreased bloodflow-->ISCHEMIA, loss of mucosal barrier 

22

What is a simple obstruction of the GI?

Occlusion at a single point-->interference with passage of ingesta 

1. distension: proximal to the obstruction, ingested fluid, digestive secretions, intestinal gas

2. Loss of fluid and elctrolytes: vomiting and/or sequestration

3. Bacterial overgrowth within the distended segment 

23

What could cause a simple obstruction? give specific examples of it.

Foreign Body: enteroloth, trichobezoar, ingesta, parasites 

Neoplasia: Adenocarcinoma, intestinal lymphoma-especially focal, leiomyoma 

Stricture/stenosis

Congenital: atresia coli/ani (occlusion/stenosis or segmental absence) (atresia=absence of a segment or abnormally narrow segment) 

Acquired-a result of healing following injury

-salmonellosis in pigs-->rectal stricture

24

Where are common sites for simple obstruction?

Ileocecal junction, pylorus

Horse: transverse colon, base of cecum, pelvic flexure 

25

Name some Closed loop obstructions

Hernias, Internal entrapments(mesenteric tears, nephrosplenic ligament (horse), mesenteric lipoma (horse)), Displacements (LDA) 

26

Define a Closed loop obsturction

It is a segment of intestine that is isolated by occulsion at two points 

-distension proximal to within loop 

-reduced bloodflow, tension damage to loop 

-overgrowth of bacteria-->absorption of toxins 

 

MOST damage is due to distension

27

What is the main cause of damage in a closed loop obstruction?

Distension 

28

What is a very important result of closed loop obstruction with strangulation?

Closed loop obstruction + severely disrupted bloodflow--> ischemia 

Obstruction of thin-walled veins but not arteries

-affected bowel becomes congested

-gut wall becomes devitalized--> absorption of bacterial toxins through damaged mucosa-->shock/peritonities 

29

Describe the lesion you would see with closed loop obstructions with strangulation

Lesions:

  • sharply demarcated
  • dark red/blue (congestion/hemorrhage)
  • edema
  • hemorrhagic luminal contents
  • friable intestinal wall

30

List some examples of closed loop obstructions with stangulation:

Examples:

  • intestinal torsion/volvulus 
  • hernia
  • internal entrapment
  • intussusception- a segment of intestine (intussusceptum) telescopes within the directly distal segment (intussusceptiens) 

31

What is an organism that causes arterial thromboembolisms in Horses?

Strongylus vulgarus 

32

What can be the result of strongylus vulgaris larval migration?

Arterial damage as a result of the larvae--> arteries--> formation of thromboemboli--> thromboembolic showering of vessels of the large intestine-->blood supply to the intestine is obstructed due to thromboemboli-->ischemia-->necrosis 

33

If you are suspecting a parasite infection in a horse, upon necropsy, where should you always look???

The CRANIAL mesenteric Artery

why?

L4 larvae migrate through and within the vessel walls--> verminious arteritis