what are the 6 primary functions of the liver
- Production of plasma proteins
- Excretion of bile
- Energy metabolism
- Surveillance of blood
- Maintenance water and salt balance
the liver can regenerate up to ____% of the liver
what is a very common manifestation in chronic hepatic Dz
T or F
Although fibrosis can be progressive, it does not disrupt or impede normal flow of blood.
What will be the functional effect of collagen filling the space of Disse?
it will limit the access of hepatocytes to plasma
define hepatocellular capillarization, and what is the consequence?
it is when the sinusodial fenestrations are lost, and the transfer of macromolecules between the hepatocytes and the blood is impaired
the consequence is that the ability of the liver to carry out its synthetic, catabolic, ane excretory roles is compromised .
define periportal (centroacinar) fibrosis
fibrosis on and around portal tracts
Define centrilobular (periacinar/cardiac) fibrosis
fibrosis centered on the centrilobular areas
Is periportal fibrosis a secondary or primary injury?
secondary to injury to targeting the biliary tree
- chronic infection
- chronic toxic injury (phosphorous)
what are some examples of periportal fibrosis?
- chronic infections
- chronic toxic injury
*remember that periportal fibrosis is an injury targeting the biliary tree
define bridging fibrosis
fibrosis bridging portal tracts and/or centrilobular
define biliary fibrosis
this is not as common, but it is when fibrosis is centered on the bile ducts them selves, as opposed to periportal fibrosis that surrounds it.
inflammation of the the liver
inflammation of the bile ducts
inflammation that involves both hepatocytes and bile ducts
what are the 3 paterns of hepatocellular degeneration of necrosis
1. random necrosis
2. zonal necrosis
3. massive necrosis
what are the 4 types of zonal necrosis
1. centrilobular 2. midzonal 3. periportal 4. bridging
what is the most common type of zonal necrosis? and what are some examples of this type of injury
centrilobular common injury is hypoxic or toxic damage
what are the 2 main reasons for centrilobular hepatic necrosis
this area has the highest concentration of drug metabolizing enzymes hypoxia area ( this is the area most susceptible to injury)
ascending infection causing an abscess, infection and inflammation of the umbilical veins
What is the pathology for general rumenitis?
1) Ruminal acidosis (esp. feedlot cattle due to grain fed)
2) Damaged mucosal barrier
3) Bacterial penetration and access to portal blood
4) Bacterial hepatitis
What is the most common pathogen responsible for rumenitis?
fusobacterium necrophorum (80-97%)
hat is the worry with a liver abscess?
can rupture hepatic vein -> massive bacterial thrombo‐embolic event -> caudal vena cava -> lungs -> sudden fatal septic embolization (epistaxis & death)
what is the difference between a nematode, and a trematode?
nematode is a parasite that migrate THROUGH the liver trematode (helminths) RESIDE in the liver
Fasciola Hepatica is an example of a fluke that causes chronic cholangitis and bile duct obstruction. would you consider this a pathogen that lives? or migrates through the liver?
it actually does both, Larval flukes migrate through the liver causing hepatic necrosis tracts in which several bacterial diseases ( e.g. Bacillary Hemoglobinuria) can develop •Adult flukes (F. hepatica) reside in the bile ducts and cause chronic cholangitis and bile duct obstruction
What is "red water Dz"? and what is the pathogenesis?
- Bacillary Hemoglobinuria spores of Clostridium haemolyticum are in liver
- •migration of liver fluke larvae causes necrosis • → anaerobic environment where spores can germinate •bacteria release potent exotoxins → causes tissue necrosis, hemolysis & hemoglobinuria
Is a parasitic or bacterial cause more common for cholangitis?
What is the primary consequence of cholangitis?
What are the tan areas on this liver?
Areas of Fibrosis
What is the purpose of stellate cells?
They normally reside in the space of disse and in pathologic conditions the stellate cells are activated to deposit more extracellular matirix (collagen)
What type of fibrosis is this?
Periportal (centroacinar) fibrosis
What type of fibrosis is this?
Centrilobular (periacinar/cardiac) fibrosis
Bile Duct hyperplasia is the result of what?
Give me a morph dx. for this picture of a liver
Acute, moderate, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis
What does Tyzzer's disese normally infect?
The very young and immunocompromised (i.e. gerbils and FOALS)
What is the pathogensis for tyzzer's disease?
Ingestion of bacteria-->proliferate in intestine--> enteritis/enterocolitis--> access the portal circulation--> carried to the liver-->hepatic necrosis
What is the most common cause of random necrosis?
Localization of microorganisms (viral, bacterial (salmonella), fungal)
Why is the centrilobularnecrosis the most common distribution of zonal necrosis?
1. centrilobular hepatocytes contiain most of the drug metabolizing enzymes
2. Hypoxia: area of lowest oxygenation
Define Massive Necrosis
It is Necrosis that involves the entire lobule, not the entire liver
If an animals survives something causing massive necrosis what would you see?
Rarely-->if an animal survives-->post-necrotic scarring + nodular regeneration=Cirrhosis (although cirrhosis is rarely caused by a single incident of injury)
What is a toxin that can result in actue massive necrosis we discussed class?
Blue green algae toxicity
Grossly, what might you see with a bacterial infection on liver? In otherwords what lesions would you see?
Gross lesions=WHITE randomly distrubted spots through the sinusoids
A random distribution of lesions is most compatible with what cause?
Give me a morph. Dx:
Hepatic Necrosis, Actue, Multifocal, Severe
(necrobacillosis secondary to ulcerative rumenitis)
The adenovirus causes what in dogs?
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
What is the #2 cause of icterus in cats?
Write a Morph dx. for this Liver: Also what is another name for the fibrous areas?
Fibrous tissue suggest what?
Chronic, Multifocal, Severe, sclerosing cholangitis
Another name: "Pipestem Bile Ducts"