Test 1 Flashcards Preview

Sys Path > Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (37):
1

what are some DfDx for nRBCs? and what is the most common

Regenerative response (most common)
Splenic disorder
hematopoietic neoplasia
abnormal bone marrow pathology
heat stroke

2

what would cause nRBCs without the presence of reticulocytes in peripheral blood?

abnormal bone marrow pathology
heat stroke

3

what is the function of Glutathione in RBC metabolic pathways?

keeping oxygenation status in erythrocytes

4

what is the major source of ATP for the RBC?

Glycolysis

5

what are some examples of Dz's that affect glycolytic enzymes causing hemolytic anemia

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency
Phosphofructokinase Deficiency

6

what is the purpose of Glutathione in RBC metabolism

helps to protect oxidation of hemoglobin

7

how is NADPH utilized in RBC metabolism

is used for the reduction of oxidized glutathione, which in turn protects the oxidation of hemoglobin

8

Denatured ______ precipitates in the cell forming ________ _________

Hgb
Heinz Bodies

9

what state must iron be in to be an efficient oxygen transporter

Ferrous (Fe2+)

10

what stimulates the production of erythrocytes, and where is it produced

EPO, from the kidneys

11

what are the causes in a left shift in PO2

decreased 2,3 DPG
decreased CO2
decreased temp
increased PH

12

what are the causes in a right shift in PO2

increased 2,3 DPG
increased CO2
increased temp
decreased Ph

13

what is the purpose of 2,3 DPG?

stabilization of Deoxyhemoglobin, and for thee regulation of oxygen transport

14

why does hemoglobin not bind to O2 on its way back to the lungs?

It is stabilized by 2,3-DPG

15

what is the most important metabolic pathway for erythrocyte ATP synthesis?

Glycolysis

16

where is iron stored in the body?

Bone marrow (
plasma transferrin
macrophages
liver
hemoglobin
tissues

17

______ is the largest gland in the body

the Liver

18

the liver has dual blood supply, namely ________ and ________

Hepatic artery
Oxygenated blood from the aorta, 25-30% of hepatic blood flow/ 50% of the oxygen

Portal vein
Low oxygen tension (venus blood), 70-75% of hepatic blood flow - 50% of the oxygen

19

where does the portal vein recieve blood from?

Gastrointestinal tract and the spleen

20

what does a portal triad consist of?

Hepatic arteriole
portal venule
bile duct

21

the hepatic sinusoids are lined by fenestrated endothelium, and the hepatocytes are in direct contact with the plasma, why is this important to understand? and what can cause this disconnect?

when hepatocytes no longer have direct ascess to the plasma (e.g. fibrosis) there are several critical functions lost, that can lead to Dz

22

the Periportal cells in the liver receive the most O2, where as the Centrilobular cells receive the least, creating an oxygen gradient. What does this oxygen gradient make the centrilobular cells more susceptible to?

Receiving less O2 → increased susceptibility to toxic and hypoxic injury (like anemia)

23

define Cholestasis

any reduction, or blockage or bile flow

24

T or F Bile is passively secreted into the canaliculi

False, it is an active process requiring ATP

25

What is a potential problem in hepatocellular injury that affects ATP production?

Cholesasis
secretion of bile is active, requiring ATP, so if you have cellular injury compromising that you can lose the ability to keep the bile flow going.

26

T or F Bile and blood flow in the same direction through the liver

False
blood enters through both the hepatic artery, and the portal vein, and Bile flows in the opposite direction toward the canaliculi

27

where is the oxygen concentration the lowest in the liver lobule

in the center

28

where is the metabolic enzymes the most active in the liver, and why is this important?

they are most active in the center, and when you have any metabolic problems the central cells will die first.

29

what are the 2 models of microarchitecture of the liver

Lobule model
this is based on anatomy
divided into 3 areas
periportal
midzone
centrilobular

acinar model
diamond shaped structure based on the glandular nature of the liver (ie blood flow and metabolic)
divided into 3 zones

30

Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two tick transmitted hemoprotozoal parasites that invade and destroy erythrocytes to complete their life cycle. Laboratory findings may include profound anemia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, and mild to moderately elevated liver enzymes. The gross lesions often include icterus and splenomegaly. And Why?

A.Hepatocellular damage due to infection of hepatocytes

B.Hypoxia of centrilobular hepatocytes due to anemia

C.Bile duct obstruction

D.Occlusion of the hepatic artery

B.Hypoxia of centrilobular hepatocytes due to anemia

the centrilobular hepatocytes are the most enzymatically active, and have the lest amount of O2.

31

T or F
Clinical signs arising from the liver often reflect complete liver failure, rather then inadequacy of one facet of liver function?

FALSE

32

Is ammonia and example of an endogenous, or exogenous toxin?

Endogenous
Large amounts are produced by bacteria in the large bowel

33

what are the 3 main treatments for symtoms associated with ammonia toxicity?

Diet → low protein to reduce the production of ammonia and other neurotoxins
GI acting antibiotics → Neomycin → ↓ GI flora and ↓ production of ammonia
Lactulose → a synthetic disacharide metabolized bi LI bacteria → lactic acid formation → ↓ colonic Ph → traps intestinal NH4+

34

what are the 6 primary liver functions?

1. Detoxification
2. synthesis of plasma proteins
3. Secretion and conduction of bile
4. Energy metabolism
5. Surveillance of portal blood
6. water and salt metabolism

35

What are some consequences of failure of the liver in detoxification?

Hepatic encephalopathy
photosensitization

36

what are some consequences of failure of the liver to produce adequate amounts of albumin?

Ascites
edema
drug metabolism

37

what are some examples of plasma proteins produces by the liver? and what is their function?

Albumin - maintain oncotic pressure, is a carrier protein
Clotting factors - maintain hemostasis
Transferrin - binds plasma iron
lipoprotein - fat metabolism
complement components - innate immunity
hepatoglobin