Intracranial Region Flashcards Preview

Sc 23 - Head and neck Neuroanatomy > Intracranial Region > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intracranial Region Deck (37):
1

Cranial fossae
- 3 of them

- Anterior
- Middle
- Posterior

2

Anterior Cranial Fossa
- Contains the FRONTAL LOBE

Includes:-
- Frontal bone
- Ethmoid
- Lesser wing of Sphenoid

3

Middle Cranial Fossa
- Contains the TEMPORAL LOBE

Includes:-
- Sphenoid (greater wings and body plus sinus)
- Petrous part of the temporal bone

4

Posterior Cranial Fossa
- Contains the CEREBELLUM

Includes:-
- Temporal bone
- Occipital bone

5

Sella Turcica
"Turkish Saddle"

Saddle like prominence crossing the midline on the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid
Contains the PITUITARY GLAND

6

Cribiform plate

Structures passing through:
CN I - Olfactory Nerve

7

Optic Canal

Structures passing through:
- CN II: Optic Nerve
-Opthalmic Artery

8

Foramen Cecum

Structures passing through:
- Emissiary veins to the nasal cavity

9

Superior Orbital Fossa
(SOF)

Structures passing through:
- Cranial nerves:
CN III - Occulomotor
CN IV - Trochlear
CN V1 - Opthalmic branch of trigeminal
CN VI - Abducens
- Opthalmic veins

10

Foramen Ovale

Structures passing through:
- CN V3 - Mandibular branch of the trigeminal
- lesser petrosal nerve

11

Foramen Rotundum

Structures passing through:
- CN V2 - Maxillary branch of the trigeminal

12

Foranen Spinosum

Structures passing through:
- MIDDLE MENINGEAL ARTERY

13

Petrosal nerves:
- Greater
- Lesser

Greater travels through:
- Hiatus for the greater petrosal n.

Lesser travels through:
- Hiatus for the lesser petrosal n.

14

Foramen Magnum

Structures passing through:
- End of brainstem/beginning of SPINAL CORD
- Vertebral Arteries
- Spinal roots of the accessory nerve (CN XI)
- Meninges
- Medulla Oblongata

15

Internal Acoustic Meatus (IAM)

Structures passing through:
- Labyrinthine Artery

16

Jugular Foramen

Structures passing through:
- Inferior petrosal sinus
- Sigmoidal sinus (forming the Internal Jugular Vein)

17

Hypoglossal canal

Structures passing through::
- Meningeal branch of the Ascending Pharyngeal Artery

18

Condylar Canal

Structures passing through:
- Emissary Vein

19

Trigeminal Nerve - CN V
Made up of 3 branchs
Largest Cranial Nerve

CN V1 - Opthalmic branch (purely SENSORY)
CN V2 - Maxillary branch (purely SENSORY)
CN V3 - Mandibular nerve (SENSORY & MOTOR function)

20

Meninges
- Made of 3 layers

- Dura Mater (tough)
- Arachnoid Mater
- Pia Mater

21

Choroid Plexus
- Function

Makes CSF

22

Dura Mater
- tough
- has 2 layers

Outermost of the meninges
Made of COLLAGEN FIBRES
Acts as a mechanically protective covering
2 layers:
- Periosteal layer
- Meningeal layer

23

Arachnoid Mater

Delicate - small veins run between Dura and Arachnoid
Made of NON-VASCULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE

24

Pia Mater

Continuous with the surface of the brain/cord
Supports the blood supply of the brain
Forms the Choroid plexus together with ependymal cells
CAN'T be seen with the naked eye

25

Middle Meningeal Artery
- Rupture: can cause an Extradural/Epidural Haemorrhage

Largest of the 3 paired arteries supplying the meninges.
Branch of the MAXILLARY ARTERY; a terminal branch of the EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY
Runs through the Foramen Spinosum to supply the Dura Mater and the Calvaria
Runs beneath the Pterion, where the skull is very thin

26

Falx Cerebri

Fold of Dura Mater in the longitudinal fissure that separates the cerebral hemispheres

27

Falx Cerebelli

Fold of the Dura Mater that separates the Cerebellar hemispheres

28

Tentorium Cerebelli

Extension of the Dura Mater separating the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the Occipital lobes

29

Dural Venous Sinuses

Spaces between Periosteal and Meningeal layers of dura containing venous blood.
No valves in the venous sinuses
Blood in the venous sinuses originates mostly from the Brain and Cranial cavity
Drains via the Internal Jugular Vein

30

Dural venous sinuses

- Superior sagittal sinus
- Inferior sagittal sinus
- Straight sinus
- Cavernous
- Sup & inf petrosal
- Transverse & sigmoid sinuses

31

Contents of Cavernous Sinus

- Carotid Artery
- Cranial nerves:
Occulomotor; Trochlear; Opthalmic; Maxillary; Abducens
- Pituitary gland
- Sympathetic nerve

32

Extradural/ Epidural Haemorrhage
- Location
- Commonly occurs due to

Occurs between the Dura and the Skull
Common following a blow to the side of the head
Often due to the rupture of the Middle Meningeal Artery

33

Middle Meningeal artery

3rd branch of the first part (retromandibular part) of the Maxillary Artery
Which is one of the two terminal branches of the External Carotid Artery

34

Subdural Haemorrhage

Occurs when veins crossing the subdural space bursts.
Blood builds up between the dura mater and the arachnoid.
Life threatening; blood may compress the brain
Leads to:-
- Loss of consciousness
- Paralysis
- Death
Can be ACUTE or CHRONIC

35

Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

Occurs between the Arachnoid and the Pia Mater

36

CSF circultion

Formed in the Ventricles from the Choroid Plexus
Exits from the vent sys. via openings in roof of 4th ventricle into sub-arachnoid space (Cisterna Magna)
Re-absorbed via Arachnoid Granulations into systemic veins (e.g. sup sagittal sinus)

37

Spinal cord meninges
- from outside to inside

- Dura Mater
- Arachnoid
- Pia Mater
then white & grey matter