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Sc 23 - Head and neck Neuroanatomy > Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neck Deck (19):
1

Muscles of the neck

sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle
- surround the posterior and lateral parts of the neck
Postural muscles
- lie in a intermediate layer
Proprioceptive and reflexive fives - in the deep layer
Series of strap muscles - lie anteriorly

2

Support of the skull?
- no intervertebral discs between the base of the skull & c1 and c1 & c2

Weight of the skull is supported by the synovial joints only
Reinforced by numerous ligaments to enhance their stability

3

What is the platysma muscle?

- Large thing shin sheet of muscle in the superficial fascia of the neck
- tenses the skin of the neck and can move the corners of the lip and corners of the mouth down

4

Deep fascia of the neck

Has a superficial investing layer and a deeper layer ensheathing the structures lying within the investing layer
Muscles invested are:
1) Sternocleidomastoid
2) Trapezius

5

Attachments of the Deep fascia of the neck

Inferiorly:
- spine
- acromion of the scapula
- clavicle
- Manubrium Sterni of each side
Superiorly:
- external occipital protuberance
- superior nuchal line
- mastoid process

Between the Mastoid and the Ramus of the Mandible it splits to enclose the Parotid Gland

6

Prevertebral fascia (part of deep fascia)

Tough membrane covering the anterior aspect of the flexor muscles
- extends from the base of the skull to the body of the 3rd thoracic vertebrae
- laterally it passes in front of the scalene muscles and becomes continuous with the muscles enveloping the Extensor Vertebral Muscles

7

Carotid sheath

Attached to the base of the skull around the opening of the carotid canal superiorly
Inferiorly, fuses with the connective tissue around the aorta

8

Pretracheal fascia

- Delicate
- Surrounds the thyroid gland

N.B: between the layers of the deep fascia ghee is a potential space which can form a pathway for infection

9

How can the neck be divided into triangles?
What are the two main triangles?

The neck can be divided by using the superficial muscles
Main divisions are the:
- Anterior
- Posterior

10

Posterior triangle
- triangles within this:
1) digastric/ submandibular
2) carotid
3) muscular

Important structures related to this:
- Accessory nerve:
Crosses triangle almost vertically from post border of the SCM to the ant border of trapezius
- 4 superficial branches of the Cervical Plexus
Emerge around the post border of SCM
- External Jugular Vein
Passes down obliquely over SCM to enter the Posterior triangle
Ends at the clavicle where it enters the Subclavian Vein

11

Anterior Triangle
- Arteries
All arise from the Common Carotid Artery

CCA: arises from
- the Brachiocephalic on the RIGHT side
- directly from the Arch of the Aorta on the LEFT side
- enters the neck within the Carotid sheath and gives no branches
- divides into the Internal & External carotid arteries at the level of hyoid bone (C4)

Internal Carotid Artery: continues in the Carotid sheath to the cranial base where it enters the Carotid canal

External Carotid Artery: gives off a series of branches which supply the head and neck regions

12

Branches of the External Carotid Artery
- mnemonic:
Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students

- Superior Thyroid
- Ascending Pharyngeal
- Lingual
- Facial
- Occipital
- Posterior Auricular
- Maxillary
- Superficial Temporal

13

Veins of the Anterior Triangle

Internal Jugular Vein
- main vein of the neck
- emerges from the base of the skull and travels in the Carotid Sheath
- receives tributaries from most of the head and neck regions

Anterior Jugular vein drain the anterior region of the neck eventually draining into the Internal Jugular Vein

14

Cervical Spinal Nerves

8 of these
Divide into anterior and posterior branches

Posterior branches:
Supply the Extensor muscles of the vertebral column and apart for C1, supply the skin of the posterior parts of the scalp and neck

Anterior Rami: Form the
- Cervical Plexus
- Brachial Plexus

15

Cervical Plexus
C1-4

These nerves supply the muscles and cutaneous region of the neck and also form the Phrenic nerve
May be divided into superficial and deep groups
Superficial:
- supply the skin of the anterior and lateral parts of the neck and the side of the head
Deep:
- supplies muscle

16

Cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus

1) Lesser Occipital
2) Great Auricular
3) Accessory
4) Transverse nerve of the neck
5) Supraclavicular

17

Contents of the Carotid sheath

Anterior:
- External Carotid Artery
- Internal Jugular Vein
- Vagus Nerve

Posterior:
- Vagus Nerve
- Common Carotid Artery
- Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves

18

Lymphatic Drainage of the Neck

All lymph vessels in the head and neck drain into the Deep Cervical Nodes either 1) directly from the tissues or 2) indirectly after passing through other groups of nodes
Efferent vessels of the deep cervical nodes form the Jugular Trunk which enters the thoracic duct on the left and on the right usually end by entering the venous system at the junction of the Internal Jugular and Subclavian veins

19

Vertebrae

There are 7 cervical vertebrae
Through their facets joints, allow considerable flexibility to the neck region and support the head