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Sc 23 - Head and neck Neuroanatomy > Skull > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skull Deck (27):
1

Cranium
- protects brain and sensory organs

Formed of two parts:-
- Neurocranium
- Visceocranium

2

Neurocranium
- formed of a skull cap (CALVARIA),
- a cranial base (BASICRANIUM)
- an intercranial region (inner surface of base of skull)

formed of 8 bones :-
singular bones - Frontal, Ethmoidal , Occipital
paired bones - Temporal, Parietal

3

Viscerocranium
- comprises the FACIAL BONES in the anterior part of the cranium

Singular bones: -
- Mandible and Vomer
Paired:-
- Maxilla, Inferior Nasal Conchae*, Zygomatic, Palatine, Nasal and Lacrimal
*called turbinates in some textbooks

4

Mandible

Only movable joint of the cranium
articulates with the cranial base : TMJ
- temporomandibular joint

5

What bones make up the NASAL SEPTUM?
*important exam question

- Perpendicular plate of the ETHMOID BONE
- VOMER

6

Pterion

Susceptible to fractures
- weak point of the skull
- located two finger breadths superior and lateral to the edge of the orbit

7

Frontal bone

forms part of the TOP OF THE HEAD
also forms the ROOF OF THE ORBITS

8

Parietal bones

form lateral walls and roof of the cranium
divided approx mid sagitally

9

Occipital bone

Posterior region of the skull

10

Temporal bones

Form the INFERIOR LATERAL WALLS and part of the floor of the cranium

11

Sphenoid bone
- most complex bone in the body

shaped like a BUTTERFLY
unites the cranial and facial bones
Articulates with every other cranial bone and also the palatine bones, zygomatic bones, maxillae and vomer

12

Ethmoid bone

- positioned between the orbits
- forms the anteromedial floor of the cranium, roof of the nasal cavity, part of the medial wall of each orbit and part of the nasal septum

13

Maxilla bone

Forms central part of the facial skeleton
Two unite to form the upper jaw

14

Palatine bones

Small bones, distinct L shape
Form part of the hard palate, nasal cavity and eye orbit

15

Zygomatic bones
A.K.A Cheek bones

form lateral wall of each orbit and the cheeks

16

Lacrimal bone

SMALLEST BONES IN THE SKULL
Form part of the medial wall of each orbit
Have a groove that provides a passageway for the tear duct, which drains into the nasal cavity

17

Nasal bones
*often fractures by blows to the nose

Forms bridge of the nose
Lateral side articulates with the medial edge of the maxilla.

18

Vomer bone

Forms interior posterior part of the nasal septum.
Articulates along midline with both the MAXILLAE and the PALATINE bones
"Wings" articulate superiorly with the sphenoid bone and the perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid bone
- forming together the bony NASAL SEPTUM

19

Inferior Nasal Conchae Bone

located in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
help create turbulence in inhaled air
has superior and middle counterparts that are part of the ethmoid bone

20

Mandible bone

Forms the entire lower jaw
Supports the lower teeth and provides attachment for the muscle of MASTICATION.

21

Rhinorrhae

CSF leaking out after fracture of the nose

22

Skull air sinuses
- 4 main pairs of cavities in skull
- contains air and mucus which drains through them and out of the nose

- Frontal
- Ethmoid
- Sphenoid
- Maxillary (largest one)

23

Sutures

FIBROUS JOINTS (synarthroses) between bones of the skull, become increasingly immobile and ossified with age.
Everyone has a different suture pattern

24

Bregma point
Lambda point

Bregma - crossover of coronal and sagittal suture
Lambda- crossover of sagittal and lambdoid suture

25

Occipital condyle

Articulates with the Atlas
*skull articulates with the cervical spine via the Occipital Condyle

26

Movements of the Cervical Spine

- Flexion
- Extension
- Lateral flexion (side-to-side)
- Rotation

27

Cervical spine

Top 7 cervical vertebrae provide support for the neck structures