Flashcards in Intravenous Therapy Deck (48):
intake and output is defined as
the measurement and recording of all fluid intake and output during a 24 – hour period
want intake and output to be
intake can be
IV fluids, IV piggybacks, IV flushes, tube feeding and anything you put in it
output can be
urine collection, how much, and how was it collected bathroom or catheter, also vomiting
things to remember about intake
Oral fluids, Ice chips, Foods that are tend to become liquid at room temperature, Tube feedings. Parenteral fluids, Intravenous medications Catheter or tube irrigants
things to remember about output
Urine, Vomitus and liquid feces, Tube drainage, Wound drainage and draining fistulas
1 tablespoon (tbsp) =
3 teaspoons(tsp) =
1 cup(C) =
8 ounces(oz) =
1 teaspoon(tsp) =
1 cup(C) =
16 ounces(oz) =
1 ounce (oz) =
Gelatin (Jell-O) =
Ice Cream Sherbet =
4 oz. of juice =
1 cup of ice =
16 oz milkshake =
1 whole popsicle =
12 oz soda =
Pudding or yogurt =
Significance of Measuring Intake and Output
Inform, Required, Explain, Emphasize
Identify whether your patient has
undergone surgery or if he has a medical condition or takes medication that can affect fluid intake or loss.
Measure and record all
intake and output. If you delegate this task, make sure you know the totals and the fluid sources.
At least every 8 hours, record the
type and amount of all fluids he's received and describe the route as oral, parenteral, rectal, or by enteric tube.
Record ice chips as
fluid at approximately half their volume.
Record the type and amount of all
fluids the patient has lost and the route.
Describe fluids lost by patient
as urine, liquid stool, vomitus, tube drainage and any fluid aspirated from a body cavity
If irrigating a nasogastric or another tube or the bladder, measure
the amount instilled and subtract it from total output.
For an accurate measurement, keep
toilet paper out of your patient's urine.
Measure drainage in a
calibrated container. Observe it eye level and take the reading at the bottom of the meniscus.
Evaluate patterns and values outside
the normal range, keeping in mind the typical 24 – hour intake and output.
When looking at 8 – hour urine output, ask
how many times the patient voided, to identify problems
Regard intake and output holistically because
age, diagnosis, medical problem, and type of surgical procedure can affect the amounts.
Evaluate trends over
24 to 48 hours.
Don't delegate the task of recording intake and output until you're sure
the person who's going to do it understands its importance.
Don't assess output by amount only. Consider
color, color changes, and odor too.
Don't use the same graduated container for
more than one patient.
Types of IV Fluids
9NSS , 45NSS, LR, D5W, D5.45 Additives... Examples are: Potassium, CA+, Magnesium, MVI, Medications (normal saline/ half normal saline - amount of Na and Chloride; yellow multivitiam - banana bag
.45NSS (1/2 NSS)
5% Dextrose in water (D5 W)
10% Dextrose in water (D10W)