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Flashcards in Intro-Anatomy-Normal Voice Development Deck (88):
1

What are the 3 perceptual characteristics of sound with their physical correlates?

Pitch - frequency
Loudness or intensity - amplitude
Quality or timbre - harmonic constitution or waveform

2

What is frequency?
What does it describe?

The number of vibrations per second.
Description of the speed at which molecules are moving.

3

One vibration is equal to what?

One compression AND rarefaction cycle.

4

What is frequency measured in?

Hertz = cycles per second

5

What 4 things is frequency determined by?

1) size of the sound source
2) material or composition of the source
3) shape of the source
4) manner in which the sound source is set into motion

6

What is an octave?

Interval between any two notes in which the ratio of frequencies of the notes is 2:1

7

What is the frequency of middle C on a piano?

261 Hz

8

What is the average frequency of a male voice? Female?

Male = 130 Hz
Female = 210 Hz

9

What is intensity? What is intensity measured in?

Intensity is the amount of energy expended - measured in decibels (dB)

10

Two sounds of the same frequency with different intensity differ how?

There is greater displacement.

11

What determines the quality of what we hear in a voice?

Harmonic constitution or waveform

12

What is a periodic sound?

Sound produced in continuous, regular pattern. Produced with harmonics or overtones which are pleasant and less dissonant to the listener.

13

What is an aperiodic sound?

Sound that does not have a harmonic relationship that exists in periodic tones. Can have components at all frequencies.

14

_______ has both periodic and aperiodic complex sounds.

Speech

15

_____ are more periodic than ______ sounds.

Vowels; consonants.

16

What are the 3 main areas in which we target a person's voice in therapy?

1 - frequency
2 - intensity
3 - quality

17

Speech occurs as a result of what 4 main processes?

1 - respiration
2 - phonation
3 - resonance
4 - articulation

18

What is the source of strength for the voice?

Respiration

19

Respiration for speech and singing requires sustained _______.

Exhalation

20

What structures comprise the respiratory tract?

Nose and mouth, nasopharynx and oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, trachea, tracheal bifurcation, broncial tubes, bronchioles, and alveolar sacs

21

What is the glottis?

Space between the true vocal folds

22

What is the ventricle?

The space between the true and false vocal folds

23

What are the 2 main purposes of the ventricle?

Provides a space for the VF to vibrate; provides lubrication for the true VF.

24

What is the primary muscle of respiratory control?

Diaphragm

25

At rest breathing is a(n) ________ process.

Passive

26

For voice or speech, exhalation is a(n) _______ process.

Active

27

What structure produces phonation?

Larynx

28

What are the 3 primary functions of the laryngeal valve?

1 - protect the lungs
2 - set the thoracic cavity for greater strength in lifting and pushing
3 - preventing exhalation to build up pressure for a cough to dislodge foreign matter

29

Voice is a(n) _______ function of the larynx.

Overlaid

30

The larynx is capable of forming a valve because of what three things?

1 - fixed framework
2 - abduction/adduction (intrinsic muscles)
3 - framework support (extrinsic muscles)

31

What are the 6 types of cartilages in the larynx? Are there one or two of each cartilage?

1 - cricoid cartilage (1)
2 - thyroid cartilage (1)
3 - arytenoid cartilages (2)
4 - cuneiform cartilages (2)
5 - corniculate cartilages (2)
6 - epiglottis (1)

32

What are the cartilages of the larynx covered with?

Perichondrium (aka conus elasticus)

33

What cartilage forms the base for the laryngeal structures?

Cricoid cartilage

34

What is the cricoid cartilage connected to the thyroid cartilage with?

Cricothyroid ligament

35

What is significant about the cricothyroid ligament?

It is the site of a tracheotomy

36

What is the main important protective cartilage?

Thyroid cartilage

37

The inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage articulates with what?

Cricoid cartilage

38

With muscle contraction, what three directions does the thyroid cartilage rock?

Forward, up, and back

39

What does the superior horn of the thyroid cartilage articulate with?

Hyoid bone

40

The large lamina of the thyroid cartilage encloses the larynx in what two directions?

Anteriorly and laterally (not posteriorly!!)

41

What are the pyramid shaped structures located on the posterior/superior cricoid cartilage?

Arytenoid cartilages

42

What are the three processes of the arytenoid cartilages?

Vocal processes
Muscular processes
Apices

43

What do the vocal processes attach to?

They project forward and are attached to the posterior ends of the true vocal folds

44

Where are the muscular processes located?

They are the lateral posterior projections (the ones in the back)

45

Where are the apices located?

Medial superior posterior projections

46

What are directly above the apices?

Corniculates

47

What are the 3 basic movements that occur with contraction of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx? What does each movement cause?

1 - rotate = ad/ab-duct the vocal folds
2 - slide = move out and down to open and close glottis
3 - rock = tip backward and forward to change the length of the vocal folds

48

What do the corniculate cartilages extend into?

Aryepiglottic folds

49

What are the cuneiform cartilages?

Tiny cone cartilage pieces located under the mucous membrane of the arepiglottic folds

50

What are the main functions of the extrinsic muscles of the larynx? What is their secondary function?

Give the larynx support and elevate or lower the larynx position in the neck. Secondary function in pitch changes.

51

What are the two primary types of extrinsic laryngeal muscles?

Elevators and depressors

52

What is the function of elevators?

To life the larynx during swallowing; slight life of larynx for singing high pitches

53

What is the function of depressors?

To lower the larynx after swallowing; lower the larynx for low singing notes

54

What is the cricopharyngeus?

An extrinsic muscle of the larynx that helps anchor the larynx; it's the neoglottis in esophageal speech.

55

How many intrinsic muscles of the larynx are there?

6

56

What are the intrinsic muscles of the larynx primary responsible for?

Condition and position of the vocal folds

57

What is the only unpaired intrinsic muscle of the larynx?

The transverse arytenoid

58

What are the 6 intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

1 - posterior cricoarytenoids
2 - lateral cricoarytenoids
3 - cricothyroids
4 - transverse arytenoid
5 - oblique arytenoids
6 - thryoarytenoids

59

What is the only AB-ductor intrinsic muscle of the larynx?

The posterior cricoarytenoids

60

What is the function of the posterior cricoarytenoids?

To rock the arytenoids dorsally to open the glottis

61

What is the function of the lateral cricoarytenoids?

AD-ductors that pull the muscular processes anteriorly and the vocal processed medially to approximate and slightly tense the VF.

62

What are the 2 portions of the cricothyroids?

Vertical and oblique

63

What does contraction of the cricothyroids cause?

An increase in distance between the thyroid and the arytenoid cartilages, which stretches and tenses the VF.

64

What is the function of the transverse arytenoid?

Contraction pulls the arytenoid cartilages together to approximate the vocal folds

65

What muscles form an "x" on the back of the arytenoids?

The oblique arytenoids

66

What is the function of the oblique arytenoids?

Contraction pulls arytenoids medially

67

What muscle forms the bulk of the muscular portion of the true vocal folds?

Thyroarytenoid muscles

68

When the thyroarytenoid muscles move the arytenoids forward, what 2 things happen?

The vocal folds are shortened and thickened!

69

What are the two portions of t he thyroarytenoid muscles?

The lateral portion is the thyromuscularis portion.
The medial portion is the vocalis portion.

70

Stretching the VF decreases ____________ and therefore pitch________________.

Mass per unit length
Rises

71

What does it mean that the thyroarytenoid is antagonistic to the cricothyroid?

They pull the arytenoids in opposite directions.

72

What is the inner border of the VF?

vocal ligament

73

Where does the vocal ligament originate/extend to?

Originates at anterior commissure and extends to the vocal process end of arytenoids

74

What is the anterior commissure?

Where the VF come together at the larynx

75

What is another name for the false vocal folds?

Ventricular folds

76

Where are the ventricular folds?

Above the true vocal folds and the laryngeal ventricle

77

What is the laryngeal ventricle?

Deep indentation in the mucous membrane between the false and true folds

78

What are two main functions of the laryngeal ventricle?

It's the site of a generous supply of mucous glands to lubricate the true folds; serves as a space in which the folds can move into during vibration

79

By adulthood, the larynx has moved to the lower edge of the ___ vertebrae.

7th

80

Increases in the length of the pharyngeal tube contributes to a lower what?

Fundamental frequency

81

True and false vocal folds respond deferentially depending on what?

The psycho-physiological state of the person.

82

What is the average fundamental frequency of an infant at birth?

500 Hz

83

What is the average fundamental frequency of 7-8 year olds?

280 Hz

84

In what dimension does the male larynx outgrow the female larynx?

Anterior-posterior

85

What is transient dysphonia? What is it characterized by?

Abnormal quality to the voice that occurs during puberty; characterized by sudden voice breaks and harsh or hoarse quality

86

What is transient dysphonia AKA?

Stormy mutation period

87

What is the average fundamental frequency of an adult male voice? Female?

Male = 130 Hz
Female = 210 Hz

88

What factors contribute to voice changes in older adults?

Muscular atrophy, thinning and dehydration of the mucosa, loss of elasticity of ligaments, calcification of cartilages, flaccidity, bowing of the vocal folds, and edema