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Flashcards in Normal Phonatory Function Deck (47):
1

What is the mucosal wave responsible for?

VF vibration

2

What are the 2 layers of tissue over the vocalis portion of the thyroarytenoid muscle?

Cover (1st layer)
Transition (2nd layer)

3

What is the official name of the cover of the vocalis portion of the thyroarytenoid muscle?

Superficial lamina propria = Reinke's space

4

What are the two portions of the thyroarytenoid?

Thyromuscularis and the thyrovocalis

5

How is the mucosal wave formed?

The two layers slide across each other

6

How does the mucosal wave travel?

Across the superior 2/3 of the VF

7

The cells become ____ dense as you go deeper into the VF.

more

8

No mucosal wave will result in what?

Abnormal phonation

9

What position are the VF in during nonphonatory exhalation?

AB-ducted

10

When are the VF most widely AD-ducted?

Forced inhalation

11

When are the VF the longest?

During at rest breathing

12

When are the VF the shortest?

During the production of low notes (bottom of pitch range).

13

What are the two glottises of the VF?

Cartilaginous glottis and the muscular glottis

14

What happens to the VF during whisper phonation?

Only the anterior 2/3 approximate but not firmly; the posterior 1/3 remains AB-ducted, forming the "glottal chink"

15

Fundamental frequency is related to the _____ and ______ of the vocal folds.

Length and thickness

16

Short, thick, lax VF will vibrate ______ and have a ______ pitch.

Slower; lower

17

Long, thin, tense VF will vibrate ______ and have a ______ pitch.

Faster; higher

18

Vocalizing at higher pitches requires lengthening the VF to do what 3 things?

Reduce mass per unit length
Increase tension
Increase elasticity

19

What muscles are responsible for lengthening the VF?

Contraction of the cricothyroids and maybe a contraction of the cricopharyngeus

20

What is required, pressure wise, to increase pitch?

Increasing sub-glottal pressure

21

How does increasing sub-glottal pressure required to increase pitch create a paradoxical AB-ducting effect?

When we start increasing the amount of air pressure, it AB-ducts the VF. However, for phonation, we want the VF to be AD-ducted! Therefore, it takes more muscular effort to sing at a high pitch to keep the VF together for phonation.

22

Vocalizing at higher pitches requires what two things?

Increasing medial compression
Increased glottal airflow rate

23

Vocalizing at lower pitches requires what two things?

Relaxation of the cricothyroids
Simultaneous contraction of the thyroarytenoids

24

Contraction of the thyroarytenoids causes what to happen to the VF?

Shortens folds
Thickens folds

25

What is it called when the pitch range is extended beyond the normal stretching of the VF?

Falsetto voice production

26

What register is our normal talking voice in?

Chest

27

What is glottal fry?

The opposite of falsetto; it's when the VF are tightly approximated, so there is a low airflow rate and a low subglottal pressure. Results in a harsh vocal quality.

28

What is a vocal register?

Pattern of laryngeal and VF adjustments which prevail through a series of pitches. At the limit, VF adjust to a new approximation contour, which results in abrupt changes in vocal quality.

29

What are the 4 vocal registers?

1) glottal fry or pulse register
2) modal or chest register
3) midvoice register
4) falsetto register

30

What do vocal registers mean for our evaluation of an individual's voice?

Someone might be using the wrong vocal register for speech. When you use the wrong register, you're using abnormal muscular tension. Too much muscular tension can cause strain on the voice and result in a voice disorder.

31

Changes in tension, length, and approximation of the VF can affect what 3 things?

Frequency, intensity, and quality

32

What areas are our resonators?

Supraglottal areas

33

Resonation gives voice what two things?

Quality or timbre

34

What is acoustic efficiency?

There are certain optimal resonance configurations which result in efficient intensities with full amplifications or harmonics

35

Higher frequencies are best resonated by _____ degree of pharyngeal tension. Lower frequencies are best resonated by ____ degree of pharyngeal tension.

High; low (more relaxed pharynx)

36

What is the resonator with the most variability in size and shape?

Oral cavity

37

Inadequate velopharyngeal closure results in what?

Excessive nasality

38

A change in the velum position affects what three resonating cavities?

Pharynx, nasal cavity, and oral cavity

39

What is the site of closure between the nasal cavity and the velum?

Passavant's Pad

40

What was the neurochronaxic theory?

The theory that each vibratory cycle of the VF was initiated by a nerve impulse to the vocalis muscle via the recurrent/vagus nerve, and that the frequency of the voice was dependent upon the rate of impulses delivered.

41

Why was the neurochronaxic theory invalid?

Because the recurrent nerve is longer on the left side than the right side - the VF wouldn't vibrate synchronously

42

If the neurochronacix theory were true, patients with tracheotomies would be able to do what?

Phonate... but they can't! The airstream is required to produce voice.

43

When was the myoelastic aerodynamic theory introduced?

1843

44

Define each part: aero, dynamic, myo, and elastic

Aero - air pressure and flow
Dynamic - movement and change
Myo - muscular involvement
Elastic - ability to return to original state

45

How does the Bernoulli Effect cause AD-duction to occur?

The Bernoulli Effect occurs when the velocity of subglottal pressure increases while approaching and passing through a constricted glottis. The increased velocity creates negative pressure between and just below the medial edge of the vocal folds. The vocal folds are therefore AD-ducted because of the negative pressure.

46

What is significant about the juncture of the anterior 1/3 and posterior 2/3 of the VF?

The greatest amount of displacement from midline occurs there! It is also, therefore, the greatest point of friction between the two VF. This is why secondary pathologies (nodules, polyps) almost always appear there first!

47

Why does the posterior portion (cartilagenous portion) of the VF vibrate less?

Because of the weight of the vocal processes in the back