Flashcards in Intro and History Deck (54)
+ Sexual reproductive mode
Classified by pigmentation color
Classical taxonomy based on mode of motility
+ Sub-viral entities
Who invented the first simple microscope?
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Who discovered microorganisms?
Who invented the compound microscope?
(16S rRNA genes) prokaryotic; eubacteria; include blue-green algae/cyanobacteria
(16S rRNA genes) prokaryotic; archaebacteria; recently discovered; e.g. halophiles, methanogens, piezophiles
(18S rRNA genes)
fungi, algae, protozoa
J. M. Berkeley (1845)
Potato blight Ireland caused by a fungus (Phytophthora infestans)
silkworm disease etiology caused by a protozoan
gastric/stomach ulcers; stomach cancer
heart valve diseases
childbirth fever deaths
Joseph Lister (1867)
+ antiseptic techniques for surgery
+ carbolic acid (phenol) is still used as an index of effectiveness of antiseptics (phenol coefficient)
Tobacco mosaic virus
Nutrient media from extracts of natural materials: plant material, etc. think about today's media
melts at 100C solidifies ~45C
melts at 28C, easily digested
Who invented the petri dish?
Microbe present in every case of the disease but absent in healthy host.
Koch's first postulate
Suspected microbe can be isolated and grown in pure culture.
Koch's second postulate
Same disease must be produced when a healthy host is inoculated with that microbe.
Koch's third postulate
Same microbes must be isolatable from newly diseased host
Koch's fourth postulate
Viable but non culturbale (VBNC) microbes
Limitations of Koch's postulates
Unethical testing, e.g. human hosts
Limitations to Koch's postulate
When did Edward Jenner first practice vaccination (vacca = cow) ?