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Flashcards in Intro and History Deck (54)
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1

Eukarya

+ Fungi
+ Algae
+ Protozoa

2

Fungi classification

Classical taxonomy:
+ Sexual reproductive mode
+ Morphology
+ Biochemistry
+ Ecology

3

Algae classification

Classified by pigmentation color

4

Protozoa classification

Classical taxonomy based on mode of motility

5

Non-Cellular

+ Viruses
+ Sub-viral entities

6

Who invented the first simple microscope?

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

7

Who discovered microorganisms?

Robert Hooke

8

Who invented the compound microscope?

Robert Hooke

9

Bacteria

(16S rRNA genes) prokaryotic; eubacteria; include blue-green algae/cyanobacteria

10

Archaea

(16S rRNA genes) prokaryotic; archaebacteria; recently discovered; e.g. halophiles, methanogens, piezophiles

11

Eukarya

(18S rRNA genes)
fungi, algae, protozoa

12

J. M. Berkeley (1845)

Potato blight Ireland caused by a fungus (Phytophthora infestans)

13

Pasteur

silkworm disease etiology caused by a protozoan

14

Helicobacter pylori

gastric/stomach ulcers; stomach cancer

15

Oral streptococci

heart valve diseases

16

Semmelweiss

childbirth fever deaths

17

Joseph Lister (1867)

+ antiseptic techniques for surgery
+ carbolic acid (phenol) is still used as an index of effectiveness of antiseptics (phenol coefficient)

18

Ivanovski (1892)

Tobacco mosaic virus

19

Nutrient media from extracts of natural materials: plant material, etc. think about today's media

Robert Koch

20

melts at 100C solidifies ~45C

Agar

21

melts at 28C, easily digested

Gelatin

22

Who invented the petri dish?

Richard Petri

23

Microbe present in every case of the disease but absent in healthy host.

Koch's first postulate

24

Suspected microbe can be isolated and grown in pure culture.

Koch's second postulate

25

Same disease must be produced when a healthy host is inoculated with that microbe.

Koch's third postulate

26

Same microbes must be isolatable from newly diseased host

Koch's fourth postulate

27

Viable but non culturbale (VBNC) microbes

Limitations of Koch's postulates

28

Unethical testing, e.g. human hosts

Limitations to Koch's postulate

29

When did Edward Jenner first practice vaccination (vacca = cow) ?

In 1790

30

Who first practiced variolization for centuries?

The Chinese