Flashcards in Intro/concepts Deck (24):
What is psychophysiology?
Andreassi- study of relations between psychological manipulations and resulting physiological responses
What is physiological psychology/how is it different?
Effect of physiology of psychology. Same overall goal
What does Psychophysiology depend on?
Hypothesis testing and development of electronic instrumentation
What is the Law of Initial Values?
Physiological response to a stimulus is dependent on the pre-stimulus level of the system (baseline)
How would having a higher pre-stimulus level effect a response to stimulus?
The higher the initial level= smaller response or larger decrease.
Are all physiological responses effected by the pre-stimulus level?
Research indicates no. Works for HR and respiration rate but not SCL or skin temperature.
What is vasoconstriction and vasodilation?
Measured in cold pressor experiments.
Vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessels. Vasodilation widening of blood vessels.
What is autonomic balance and how is it measured?
Balance between PNS and SNS, ideally equal. A(hat) is a score calculated from autonomically innervated functions (SCL, respiration rate, heart period, salivation).
Value from each level converted to T score put into equation.
Which is dominant when an A(hat) score is high?
Which is dominant when an A(hat) score is low?
What percentage of population according to Wenger have autonomic balance/imbalance?
68% ideal balance
What are consequences of having a dominant sympathetic branch?
Risk of anxiety and psychosomatic disorders. Wenger experiment
What is the difference between ACTIVATION and AROUSAL?
State of physiological system.
Arousal- in general or at baseline
Activation- in response to stimulation
What do you need to consider when describing a behaviour?
Goals of behaviour and intensity of behaviour (activation/arousal)
What is the inverted U?
Trend of the data- inverted U shape.(AKA Yerkes-Dodson Hyp)
Level of performance rises with activation/arousal then reaches optimal before dropping when activation exceeds optimal
What is Stimulus-Response specificity?
Individ pattern of pays activity is similar in a given situation and may vary when situation different
What was Ax's 1953 study?
Can patterns of pays response differentiate emotional states?
Induced fear and anger and different patterns for different states occurred.
Higher RR, SCL in fear
Higher EMG, DBP, HR in anger
What is Fractionation and who introduced it?
Lacey 1959. diff phys variables show diff directions of response (previously thought of as unidimensional)
Evidence for: Cog activities= HR increase, Perceptual activities= HR decrease
Why do we habituate?
Possible for survival: waste of resources is similar magnitude of response to repeated, non-threatening stimuli (mediated by importance of stimuli)
How did Bruggemann and Barry (2002) test whether personality mediated habituation?
presented violent and comic clips, high psychoticism= violence= "fun"
High P= greater SCL decrement after 10 exposures than low P (more easily habituated)
What is the Orienting reflex according to Pavlov?
Reflex that allows to attend to novel, biologically important stimuli
What physiological responses occur from OR and why?
Increase in SCL, EMG, pupil dilation, EEG activation
Decrease in HR, vasoconstriction in legs, vasodilation in head
Changes facilitate perception of and response to stimuli
What are the differences in responses to OR and DR?
OR: happens to a novel stimulus, rapid habituation, increased perceptibility, decreased heart rate
DR: happens to intense/dangerous stimuli, slow habituation, decreased perceptibility, increased heart rate