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Flashcards in Preliminary Process Theory Deck (16):

What phenomenon is the OR based on?

Pavlov's "What is that reflex"- behavioural orienting toward a novel innocuous stimulus


How did Sokolov expand the OR?

Added a range of physiological responses to behavioural orienting, defining the OR with- GSR, EEG alpha blocking, respiratory pause, cephalic vasodilation, peripheral vasoconstriction


What are the three defining characteristics of Habituation?

1. Response decrement to repeated presentation of a stimulus
2. Response recover to a changed stimulus (rules out fatigue)
3. Subsequent dishabituation to a re-presentation of the habituated stimulus (characters by a bigger response)


Who developed the Unitary theory of OR/what was it?

Sokolov- "The OR"
Stimulus-> OR mechanism -> CVD response, EEG, GSR, PVC (all at once/unitary)


What did Barry find in his early exploration of Sokolovs unitary OR?

Used different measures to explore the OR. Found fractionation with stimulus variation- not a unitary response. Then tried to conceptualise the response fractionation


What were the findings regarding habituation, dishabituation and intensity effect for: EDA, respiratory response, peripheral vasoconstriction and HR deceleration?

EDA: habituated, dishabituated, intensity effect found
RR: habituation, no dishabituation, no intensity effect (no effected by different loudness etc.)
PVC: no habituation, intensity effect shown
HE decel: no habituation, no intensity effect


What remained the same between Sokolov's unitary OR and Barry's new ideas?

The functionality of the OR- still a "what is it?" reflex etc.


What generates the OR?

There are three preliminary processes that generate the OR- Stimulus register-> Novelty register (RP, EEG)/Magnitude register (PVC)-> OR


Why can the neuronal model posed by Sokolov not be applied to the PPT?

neuronal model only accommodates one measure "the OR", PPT has 3 prelim processes then OR


Who developed the Dual-process theory and what did it involve?

Groves & Thompson (1970) Involves two preliminary processes: H and S and their interaction leads to the OR


What were the outcomes of James & Barry's study of the Dual-process theory?

Found that respiratory pause H and shows as decrement (called habituation but its a hypothetical response so not related to real Habituation!)
Peripheral vasoconstriction S (sensitisation)


How does a significant stimulus impact these processes? (OR, habituation etc)

Sokolov- OR enhanced to significant stimulus with slower habituation- Barry confirmed


What is Maltzman's voluntary/involuntary distinction?

(preferred explanation through behavioural responses)
Involuntary= simple reflexive OR to indifferent stimulus
Voluntary= processing enhanced by cortical set (via condition, instructions, prior experience)


Why are CNS functions not as readily studied within the OR than the ANS?

Autonomic system measures accomodate relatively slow response of OR. Central measure like ERP's have poorer signal and usually examined as an average of responses to large no. of stimuli.


What did Barry et al.'s 1992 ERP study involve?

Examined response decrement of the N1 component of the ERP. Collected continuous EEG presenting trains with stimuli. No task and counting (sig). Results: Response decrement over trials 1-7 (8 was 100Hz compared to 500Hz) recovery to change trial. NO evidence of dishabituation


How did Barry know the response of the N1 was no a paradigm effect?

Experimented with SCR in same paradigm showed decrement, recovery and dishabituation