Intro to animal development - lecture 8 Flashcards Preview

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1

What is the ball of cells called after fertilisation has occurred?

Blastula stage embryo

2

What does Xenopus blastula look like?

Dark pigmented animal pole and egg rich vegetal pole

3

Which parts of the blastula divide quicker?

The blastomeres (cells of animal pole) divide faster than the yolk cells

4

What is the radical cleavage?

Alternating angle divisions. Cells get smaller and smaller , no growth just division

5

What is the grey Crescent?

When the sperm enters there is a 30 degree rotation, which exposes a wedge of cytoplasm producing a lighter coloured 'grey Crescent'

6

what does the grey crescent respond to in the future?

The dorsal/ back of the embryo

7

What does the sperm entry respond to In future development?

The ventral/belly side

8

What is Gastrulation?

Invagination of cells to generate 3 germ layers; the endoderm , mesoderm and the ectoderm

9

What is the archenteron?

The primitive gut, invades the blastocoel

10

What happens to the blastoel during gastrulation?

It decreases in size

11

What is the epiboly in gastrulation

Movement of cells in which a cap of cells form epithelial monolayer on top of the embryo

12

What is the gastrulation stage?

Beginning of formation of the interior embryo , causes tissues to fold inward. The site where the cells migrate is called the blastopore . The grey crescent makes up the Dorsal lip

13

What is the neural tube formed of?

Ectoderm

14

Which animals were the first cloning experiments done?

Amphibians

15

What is the neural plate stage?

embryo after gastrulation

16

what happens during Neurulation?

Raised neural folds appear either side of a neural groove on a neural plate, the folds move together to from a closed neural tube

17

Somatic cell nuclear transplantation

- DNA from pigmented frog egg destroyed
- cell removed from albino blastula embryo , nucleus removed
- Nucleus put into the 'host' egg
- albino frog

18

Can differentiated adult cells be used in cloning?

yes

19

When was Dolly the sheep cloned?

Roslin institue , 1997

20

what are the three key lessons we can learn from animal cloning?

- DNA can be reprogrammed to allow development following differentiation
- DNA is not lost during development
- gene expression must be regulated

21

What is the dorsal lip?

just below the grey
crescent , Where cell movements start

22

what does the Ectoderm form?

The nervous system

23

what does the mesoderm form?

- muscles , bone, cartilage, connective tissue, organ tissue and blood

24

What does the endoderm form?

epithelial cells of digestive and respiratory tubes

25

what is Caenorhabditis elegans ( nematode work) good for?

Genetics , very few cells

26

What is Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) good for?

Genetics , lots of mutants

27

What is Danio rerio (zebra fish) good for?

genetics, external development , clear embryo for imaging

28

What is Xenopus laevis (frog) good for?

external development, experimental embryology

29

What is Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken) good for?

experimental embryology

30

what is Mus musculus (mouse) good for?

genomics, genetic modification