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Flashcards in intro to chemotherapy Deck (26):
1

selective toxicity

greater toxicity to parasite than host

2

chemotherapy selects for what strains of bacteria

resistant strains

3

purpose of chemotherapy

lowers the microorganism load so that the host defense system can rid the body of foreign organisms

4

is maintenance of constant blood levels more important with bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents

bacteriostatic

5

what is vertical antimicrobial resistance

resistance to a drug is acquired by a mutation and passed vertically by selection to daughter cells

6

what are the three types of horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance

transduction, transformation, conjugation

7

transduction

DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus (bacteriophage) 

8

transformation 

bacteria undergo lysis all of the time and release DNA into environment. DNA is picked up by neighboring bacteria and incorporated into DNA 

9

conjugation 

required cell to cell contact; need sex pilus to join two cells together 

10

list the drugs that are hepatotoxic 

  • tetracyclines
  • isoniazid
  • erythromycin estolate
  • clindamycin
  • sulfonamides
  • amphotericin B 

11

list the drugs that are renal toxic 

  • cephalosporins
  • vancomycin
  • aminoglycosides 
  • sulfonamides
  • amphotericin B 

12

which drugs have ototoxicity 

  • aminoglycosides
  • vancomycin
  • minocycline (vestibular only) 

13

which drugs have visual toxicity 

  • ethambutol
  • isoniazid 

14

which drugs have photosensitivity 

  • tetracyclines
  • fluoroquinolones
  • sulfonamides 

15

what is empirical antimicrobial therapy 

diagnosis and choice of antimicrobial agent is based on clinical judgment and experience

 

16

bacteriocidal 

cell death 

17

bacteriostatic 

growth inhibition 

18

MIC vs MBC 

  • MIC: minimum inhibitory concentration
  • MBC: minimum bactericidal concentration 

 

19

concentration dependent killing 

rate and extent of killing dependent upon drug concentrations 

20

time dependent killing 

killing is not increased with increasing concentrations above MBC, but is dependent on the time of exposure to the Abx

21

postantibiotic effect 

persistant suppression of bacterial growth after limited exposure to an antimicrobial agent

22

abx synergism 

when the inhibitory or killing effects of two or more antimicrobials used together are significantly greater than expected from thier effects when used inidividually 

23

superinfections are most frequently observed with what type of Abx 

broad spectrum antibiotics

24

what is the most common superinfection

intestinal candidiasis

  • can be treated with oral nystatin or amphotericin B 

25

staphylococcal enterocolitis is a superinfection that is life-threatening and should be treated how?

  • discontinue abx therapy
  • treat staph infection with oral vancomycin 

26

pseudomembranous colitis is caused by what organism?

  • clostridium difficile