What is a synovial joint?
Synovial Joints 1. Bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity a. Bones are separated by a physical space b. Not connected by anything- physical space between bones 2. All are diarthrotic a. Means fully moveable b. Include all limb joints i. Most joints of the body 3. Not stable Need ligaments and muscles that cross the joints
What are the 6 features of synovial joints?
articular cartilage synovial cavity synovial fluid joint capsule reinforcing ligaments nerves and blood vessels
What are the other features of synovial joints?
fatty pads articular discs (mensci) bursae tendon sheaths
What is articular cartilage?
1. Articular cartilage a. Cap at the end of the long bones b. Cartilage is not innervated i. Wont hurt if cartilage touches other cartilage c. Bone on bone would hurt i. Ex is arthritis Worn away articular cartilage
What is a synovial cavity?
Physical space between the joints as well as the recesses created on the side
a. Fluid in synovial cavity b. Made by synovial membrane
What is a joint capsule?
Holds the bones that are not touching together a. Fibrous layer: external i. Stronger ii. Protective layer b. Synovial membrane: inner i. Cellular and connective tissue ii. Makes fluid via filtration through membrane iii. Delicate
What is a reinforcing ligament?
a. Outside of fibrous layer b. MCL and LCL
What is a fatty pad?
feature of synovial joints 1. Fatty pads a. Surround paces where bone come into contact with one another b. Located between fibrous and synovial layers of joint capsule Extra adipose for cushioning
What is an articular disc (mensci)?
feature of synovial joints 2. Articular discs (menisci) a. Only in knee joint b. Improves the fit between bones c. Cushion Reduces wear and tear
What is a bursae?
feature of synovial joint 3. Bursae a. Miniature joint capsules Located any place where there might be friction
What is a tendon sheath?
feature of synovial joint 4. Tendon Sheaths a. Elongated bursa wrapped completely around tendon subjected to friction Reduces friction
What kind of joint do plane joints have?
plane joint- flat articular surface
What kind of movement do plane joints have?
non axial gliding not a lot of mobility
What kind of joint is an intercarpal joint?
What kind of joint is an intertarsal joint?
What kind of joint is an elbow joint?
What kind of joint is an interphalangeal joint?
hinge joint elbow and knee
What kind of movement does a hinge joint have?
uniaxial flexion and extension
What kind of joint is a proximal radiolunar joint?
pivot joint radius spins against ulna allows for supination and pronation at the elbow
What kind of joint is an atlantoaxial joint?
pivot joint joint in neck allows head to pivot C1 and C2
What kind of movement does a pivot joint have?
Describe gliding movement
flat articular surfaces slide against one another to accommodate a large movement of wrist or ankle
Describe nonaxial movement
these are micromovements mainly tiny joints
Describe uniaxial movement
can only move in one plane flexion and extension OR rotation