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Flashcards in Intro to Logic Deck (58)
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1

What is Logic?

The analysis and appraisal of arguments

2

What is Philosophy?

Reasoning about the ultimate questions of life

3

What is an Argument?

a set of statements consisting of premises and a conclusion

4

What is a Premise?

supporting evidence

5

What is a Conclusion?

a statement made based on supporting evidence

6

What is true/false?

statements can either be true, correct, or false, incorrect

7

What is the Law of Non-Contradiction?

contradictory propositions cannot both be true in the same sense at the same time, e. g. the two propositions "A is B" and "A is not B"

8

What is the Law of Excluded Middle?

the law of excluded middle states that for any proposition, either that proposition is true or its negation is true

9

What is valid/invalid?

Valid is if the premises support the conclusion, invalid if the premises do not

10

What is the difference between true and valid?

true is connected to statements, valid is connected to agruments

11

What is "sound"?

A "sound" argument is both valid (conclusion follows the premises) and all the premises are true

12

What is ".˙."?

Therefore

13

What is "wff"?

A well formed formula is a finite sequence of symbols from a given alphabet that is part of a formal language

14

What is a deductive argument?

A deductive argument has a tight connection between premises and conclusion, it would be impossible for the premises to all be true but have a false conclusion

15

What is an inductive argument?

An inductive argument has a loose connection between premises and conclusion, the conclusion relative to the premises is only a good guess (could be true or false)

16

What is a definition?

a rule of paraphrase intended to explain the meaning of a word or phrase

17

What is an interchange test?

A definition test where if A=B is true, then B=A must be true

18

What is a lexical definition?

a definition explaining current usage of a word or phrase

19

What is a stipulative definition?

a definition specifying your own usage of a word or phrase

20

What is a clarifying definition?

a definition that stipulates a clearer meaning for a vague term

21

What is a recursive definition?

a definition that first specifies some things that the term applies to and then specifies if the term applies to certain things

22

What is a logical positivism?

using the verifiability criterion of meaning

23

Who is A.J. Ayer?

a logical positivist who appealed to the verifiability criterion of meaning

24

What is an analytic sentence?

a statement that is self-contradictory to deny

25

What is a synthetic sentence?

any statement which cannot be determined true or false by linguistic meaning alone

26

What is verifiability criterion of meaning?

(LP) If there is no way to test a statement, then it has no meaning– nothing in it could be true or false

27

Who is William James?

Logistician who suggests to determine the "cash-value" of a statement

28

What is pragmatism?

if the truth of a statement has no practical meaning to anyone, then it has no meaning at all

29

What is a logically necessary truth?

the same idea as analytic statements, a truth that is self-contradictory to deny

30

What is "a priori" knowledge?

rational knowledge based on reason