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Flashcards in Intro to Medical Microbiology Deck (104)
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1

In regards to host response evasion strategies, give an example of the "elicit minimal host response"

Herpes simplex virus remains latent in host cells for long periods without causing pathology

2

In regards to host response evasion strategies, give an example of the "evade effects of host response"

mycobacteria survive within a granuloma created to localize and destroy infection

3

In regards to host response evasion strategies, give an example of the "depress host response"

HIV destroys T cells; Malaria depresses immune response

4

Viruses, spirochetes, and trypanosmones change surface antigens to avoid recognition by host. What is the name of this strategy?

antigenic change

5

Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa produce acute infections faster than the immune response can develop. What is the name of this strategy?

rapid replication

6

Genetic heterogeneity among hosts always provides some individuals with greater susceptibility or reduced immune status. This allows survival in what type of individuals?

weakly responsive individuals

7

These are glycoproteins produced by many cells; especially leukocytes

interferons

8

IFN-_ and IFN-_ both inhibit viral protein synthesis and activate leukocytes to kill viruses

IFN alpha; IFN beta

9

IFN gamma signals for what?

upregulation of MHC I and II expression and antigen presentation; activates NK and Tc cells to kill virus-infected host cells

10

Interferons are cell-specific in their production and effects, but virus non-specific. True or false?

True

11

Interferons are induced by the presence of _-__

ds-RNA

12

Once initiated, interferon continues for several ___

hours

13

Interferon is produced in ___ and then ___, thus it doesn't affect the producing cells

vesicles; excreted

14

Interferon inhibits what?

translation of viral mRNA and viral replication

15

Interferon production induces the common features of viral infection. What are these symptoms?

flu-like: fever, myalgia, headache

16

Who discovered microorganisms using the microscope?

Van Leeuwenhoek (1674)

17

Who used Linnaen method to organize bacteria: Genus species

Muller (1774)

18

Who discovered anthrax, rabies, plague, cholera, and TB

Koch and Pasteur (1870's)

19

who created the first antibacterial, Salvarsan (for syphilis)?

Ehrlich (1910)

20

Who discovered penicillin?

Fleming (1928)

21

Who discovered sulfanilamide?

Domagk (1935)

22

Who discovered streptomycin?

Waksman (1943)

23

Who was the first to cultivate viruses using cell culture?

Enders (1946)

24

What microbes can you visualize under a light microscope?

protozoa and bacteria (10^-6)

25

What microbes can you visualize with an electron microscope?

viruses (10^-8)

26

These are deviant and disruptive proteins. Associated with Mad Cow Disease

prions

27

These are obligate intracellular parasites or lack cell well; cause cell and tissue destruction. Ex: chlamydia, mycoplasma, Rickettsia

degenerate bacteria

28

These microbes are free-living, possess and cell wall. The prokaryotic type lacks a nuclear membrane, ER, and mitochondria

bacteria

29

These microbes can be simple or complex. They are eukaryotic, contain an ER, mitochondria, and golgi; can be unicellular or multicellular; and utilize asexual reproduction

fungi

30

These microbes are eukaryotic; complex, unicellular or multicellular.
Ex: cryptosporidium, tapeworm

parasites