Flashcards in Intro to Medical Microbiology Deck (104)
In regards to host response evasion strategies, give an example of the "elicit minimal host response"
Herpes simplex virus remains latent in host cells for long periods without causing pathology
In regards to host response evasion strategies, give an example of the "evade effects of host response"
mycobacteria survive within a granuloma created to localize and destroy infection
In regards to host response evasion strategies, give an example of the "depress host response"
HIV destroys T cells; Malaria depresses immune response
Viruses, spirochetes, and trypanosmones change surface antigens to avoid recognition by host. What is the name of this strategy?
Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa produce acute infections faster than the immune response can develop. What is the name of this strategy?
Genetic heterogeneity among hosts always provides some individuals with greater susceptibility or reduced immune status. This allows survival in what type of individuals?
weakly responsive individuals
These are glycoproteins produced by many cells; especially leukocytes
IFN-_ and IFN-_ both inhibit viral protein synthesis and activate leukocytes to kill viruses
IFN alpha; IFN beta
IFN gamma signals for what?
upregulation of MHC I and II expression and antigen presentation; activates NK and Tc cells to kill virus-infected host cells
Interferons are cell-specific in their production and effects, but virus non-specific. True or false?
Interferons are induced by the presence of _-__
Once initiated, interferon continues for several ___
Interferon is produced in ___ and then ___, thus it doesn't affect the producing cells
Interferon inhibits what?
translation of viral mRNA and viral replication
Interferon production induces the common features of viral infection. What are these symptoms?
flu-like: fever, myalgia, headache
Who discovered microorganisms using the microscope?
Van Leeuwenhoek (1674)
Who used Linnaen method to organize bacteria: Genus species
Who discovered anthrax, rabies, plague, cholera, and TB
Koch and Pasteur (1870's)
who created the first antibacterial, Salvarsan (for syphilis)?
Who discovered penicillin?
Who discovered sulfanilamide?
Who discovered streptomycin?
Who was the first to cultivate viruses using cell culture?
What microbes can you visualize under a light microscope?
protozoa and bacteria (10^-6)
What microbes can you visualize with an electron microscope?
These are deviant and disruptive proteins. Associated with Mad Cow Disease
These are obligate intracellular parasites or lack cell well; cause cell and tissue destruction. Ex: chlamydia, mycoplasma, Rickettsia
These microbes are free-living, possess and cell wall. The prokaryotic type lacks a nuclear membrane, ER, and mitochondria
These microbes can be simple or complex. They are eukaryotic, contain an ER, mitochondria, and golgi; can be unicellular or multicellular; and utilize asexual reproduction