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Flashcards in Intro to Neoplasia Deck (20):
1

An abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli that envoked the change.

Neoplasia

Used interchangeably with tumor.

Both DO NOT equal cancer.

2

Describe the differences between benign and malignant tumors.

Benign: usually resemble normal tissue, slow growth rate, non-invasive, encapsulated; do not metastasize

Malignant: vary from resembling normal tissue to extremely different, variable growth rate, usually invasive, capable of metastasizing. -carcinoma or -sarcoma.

3

Epithelial

arise from ecto- or endoderm

squamous, glandular/ductal, respiratory and transitional epithelium, liver cells, and basal cells of skin/adnexa

4

Mesenchymal

arise from mesoderm

fibroblasts, adipocytes, smooth/skeletal muscle, bone, cartilage, blood vessels

5

Hematolymphoid

Lymphoma, leukemias, plasmacytoma, pseudolymphoma, malignant tumors

6

Melanocytes

neural crest origin

7

Pleomorphic adenoma

Benign mixed tumors
Epithelial and mesenchymal components
Commonly in parotid gland

8

Teratoma

Predominately benign
Composed of tissue derived from multiple germ layers -- totipotent cells

9

Mass of disorganized, mature tissue which is specific to the site of development

Hamartoma
Lung hamartoma

10

Ectopic tissue in a foreign location

Choriostoma
Gastric heterotopia

11

Extent to which tumor cells morphologically and functionally resemble the normal tissue counterpart

Differentiation/grade

Well-differentiated: resembles normal tissue
Moderately differentiated
Poorly-differentiated: primitive, vague resemblance
Anaplastic: complete lack of differentiation

Benign tumors are well-differentiated; malignant tumors vary from well- to poorly-differentiated/anaplastic

12

What are some characteristic features of anaplasia?

Ugly!
Pleomorphism
Hyperchromatic nuclei
High N/C ratios
Coarsely clumped chromatin
Large nucleoli
Atypical, bizarre mitoses (tripolar)
Loss of polarity
Tumor giant cells

13

Carcinoma in situ (CIS)

Pre-invasive lesion
Seen in proximity to invasive tumor
Malignant cells do not penetrate beyond basement membrane
Full thickness dysplasia (disordered growth)

14

Characteristics of dysplasia

Loss of polarity
Loss of maturation
Loss of architecture/organization
Abnormally located mitoses
Varies from mild to severe (CIS)
Mild to moderate may spontaneously resolve

15

Local invasion

1. loosening of intracellular junctions
2. attachment at different sites
3. degradation
4. migration

16

Malignant tumors metastasize except for...

Basal cell carcinoma and gliomas

17

Pathways for metastatic spread

Hematogenous (most common for sarcoma spread)
Lymphatics (most common for carcinoma spread)
Seeding of body cavities and surfaces (peritoneal cavity)--Tumor cells displace from mass and implant and/or invade serosal surfaces

18

Sentinel node

First LN to drain the tumor

19

TNM system for clinical stage

T= tumor size
N= nodal involvement
M= metastasis

20

Host reactions to cancer

Local effects
Cachexia
Hematologic abnormalities (anemia, hypercoagulability)
Paraneoplastic syndromes: non-hormonal or hormonal effects of a tumor, unrelated to local spread or metastasis