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Flashcards in Introduction to Diagnostic Methods Deck (10):

Gross examination

Practice of meticulously detailing the tissue/organ description and dissecting the tissue/organ


What is the most routinely used stain?

Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)


Frozen section

Procedure where a representative piece of tissue is rapidly processed by freezing, staining and then examining it under a microscope



Technique that uses antibody reagents to detect specific antigens on the surface of in the cytoplasm of cells. Can be used to detail the expression of tumor antigens on the cell surface, cytoplasm or nucleus and for the purpose of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options.



The study of cells in a fluid suspension without architecture i.e. papsmear


Molecular and cytogenetic analysis

Genetic alterations leading to tumor formation can be mutations, translocations, deletions, and amplification/overexpression


Karyotype analysis

Examination of chromosomes, may reveal genetic alterations when sufficient genetic material is exchanged, lost, or amplified in translocations, deletions or amplifications, respectively.


Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

Used to target non-dividing cells as well as a larger percentage of tumor cells. Uses specific nucleic acid probes labeled with fluorescent dye constructed against areas of interest in the genome.


PCR and Gene sequencing

Able to detect more sensitive mutations like those in growth regulatory genes. Complementary DNA primers are designed against a genomic area of interest. Primers stimulate replication of complementary DNA strand, which is repeated over numerous cycles of primer annealing, extending and strand separation to generate millions of DNA copies.


Microarray technology

Nucleic acid template on which complementary nucleic acids (from tumor or normal tissue) can hybridize. Gene expression levels can provide valuable insight into mechanisms of tumorigenesis.
Oncotype DX breast cancer assay