Intro to Neuro part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Neuro part 1 Deck (66):
1

Nervous System is divided into (2)

CNS and PNS

2

CNS is divided into (2)

brain and spinal cord

3

PNS is divided into (2)

cranial nerves and spinal nerves

4

The brain is divided into (3)

cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

5

brainstem is divided into (3)

midbrain, pons, medulla

6

spinal cord is divided into (5) segments

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

7

cerebrum (parts/functions) (5)

(has what are often called higher functions)
~Perceiving and interpreting sensory input – touch, vision, hearing, taste and smell
~Generation & coordination of voluntary movements
~Production & understanding of language
~Thinking, planning, organizing and problem solving
~Generation & controlling our own emotions and recognizing the emotions of others

8

Cerebellum (parts/functions) (4)

(generally thought as a structure involved in motor functions)
~Coordination of voluntary movement
~Regulation of posture
~Processing of sensory input
~Involvement in emotional behaviors

9

Brainstem (parts/functions) (7)

~Generation of motor activities & reception of sensory input through cranial nerve
~Final connection from the CNS to muscles of head & neck
~Transmitting information running between the cerebrum, cerebellum and the spinal cord
~Regulation of basic visceral (body) functions such as breathing, heart rate and regulation of smooth muscle throughout the body
~Reflexes
~Basic functions of balance and movement
~Consciousness, wakefulness and sleep cycles

10

Spinal Cord (parts/function) (4)

~Generation of motor activities & reception of sensory input through spinal & peripheral nerves
~Final connection of CNS to all skeletal muscles of the body (except head & some neck muscles) – “final common pathway”
~Generation of some basic motor patterns – “central pattern generators”
~Reflexes

11

Cranial Nerves (parts/function) (4)

~Arise in pairs from the different levels of the brain stem
~Some have purely sensory function
~Some have purely motor function
~Some have different combinations of motor, sensory and autonomic function

12

Spinal Nerves (parts/function) (4)

~Arise in pairs from each of the 31 spinal segments
~All have both motor and sensory functions
~Many have motor, sensory and autonomic function
~Spinal nerves branch to form named peripheral nerves

13

Anatomical Planes (3)

sagittal, coronal, horizontal

14

Sagittal Plane divides...

the nervous system into left and right sections

15

Coronal Plane divides...

the nervous system into front and back sections

16

Horizontal Plane divides...

the nervous system into an upper and lower section; also can be called a "cross-section" image

17

Directional Terminology for Spinal Cord/ Brainstem
Dorsal=

Posterior (towards the back)

18

Directional Terminology for Spinal Cord/ Brainstem
Ventral=

Anterior (towards the front)

19

Directional Terminology for Spinal Cord/ Brainstem
Superior=

also called rostral, upwards

20

Directional Terminology for Spinal Cord/ Brainstem
Inferior=

also called caudal, downwards

21

Directional Terminology for Spinal Cord/ Brainstem
Lateral=

towards the side or away for midline

22

Directional Terminology for Spinal Cord/ Brainstem
Medial=

towards the midline or away from the side

23

Directional Terminology for Cerebrum
Superior=

Dorsal

24

Directional Terminology for Cerebrum
Inferior=

Ventral

25

Directional Terminology for Cerebrum
Anterior=

Rostral or Frontal

26

Directional Terminology for Cerebrum
Posterior=

Caudal or Occipital

27

Directional Terminology for Cerebrum
Lateral=

towards the side or away from midline

28

Directional Terminology for Cerebrum
Medial=

toward the midline or away from the side

29

the adult human brain contain ________ neurons and _______ supporting cells (___)

100 billion
equivalent number
glia

30

About _____ cells are cerebral cortex

20 billion cells

31

What is the cerebral cortex?

a thin layer of cells along the outer rim of the cerebrum

32

the cerebrum contains (__ hemispheres)

2 hemispheres

33

what is the divide of the 2 hemispheres called in the cerebrum?

longitudinal fissure

34

what connects the 2 hemispheres in the cerebrum?

a dense band of nerve fibers (axons) called the corpus callosum

35

the surface of the cerebrum contains ____ (____) and _____ (_____)

grooves (sulcus) and ridges (gyrus)

36

Grey matter in brain

composed of neuronal cell bodies and dendrites

37

White matter in brain

composed of myelinated neuronal axons

38

Nucleus of the cerebrum

clusters of cell bodies in the cerebrum

39

Tract of cerebrum (other names and definition)

fasciculus or white column
a group of axons running together within the central nervous system

40

Nerve

a group of axons running together

41

ganglion

group of cell bodies in a peripheral nervous system

42

Each hemisphere contains ___ lobes

4-6 lobes

43

Frontal lobe

anterior (rostral) to the central sulcus

44

Parietal lobe

posterior (caudal) to the central sulcus

45

Temporal lobe

inferior to lateral fissure

46

Occipital lobe

the most posterior caudal lobe

47

Insula

pull back frontal and temporal cortex and within the lateral fissure- sometimes called the insular lobe

48

Precentral gyrus

just rostal to the central sulcus- primary motor cortex

49

Postcentral gyrus

just caudal to the central sulcus-primary somatosensory cortex

50

Cingulate gyrus

(limbic lobe) superior to the corpus callosum

51

Fornix

A fiber tract (a groups of axons running together in the CNS) which connect the medial temporal lobe and the hypothalamus on the same side of the cerebrum

52

Diencephalon (4 parts +1 other)

thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus
(pituitary gland- not really considered part of the diencephalon)

53

Thalamus

the large ovoid structure in the center of the cereburm

54

Hypothalamus

just below the thalamus and anterior

55

Subthalamus

just below and posterior to the thalamus

56

Epithalamus

posterior to the thalamus

57

spinal cord anatomy

~each segment has a pair of spinal nerves
~each spinal nerve is composed of thousands of nerve fibers (axons) which will branch to form named peripheral nerves

58

gray matter in spinal cord

in the center of the spinal cord with the cell bodies and dendrites

59

white matter in spinal cord

surrounds the gray matter and is formed by the myelinated ascending and descending axons

60

4 parts of the gray matter

Butterfly shape
Dorsal "wings"
Ventral "wings"
Central gray area linking horns

61

Ventral roots of the gray matter of the spinal cord

contains "motor" axons leaving the spinal cord, entering the spinal nerve, passing into named peripheral nerves, and eventually innervating skeletal muscles

62

Dorsal roots of the gray matter of the spinal cord

contains sensory axons which originally arise in the skin, muscle, joint, or even body viscera; located in the dorsal root ganglia which is the enlargement I the dorsal root

63

Cauda Equina

~Spinal cord descends in the spinal canal to about L1 or L2
~Spinal nerves will exit the appropriate levels
~There is a bundle of nerves after L1 or L2 that is referred to as cauda equine

64

Vertebra anatomy

~composed of a body and vertebral arch
~vertebra arch is formed by 2 lamina and 2 pedicles
~the arch forms the vertebral foramen (spinal canal) through which the spinal cord passes
~there are also transverse and spinous processes for muscular attachments

65

Between the Vertebrae

~When the 2 vertebra attach, form an intervertebral foreman
~Spinal nerve passes out through intervertebral foremen
~Vertebral bodies separated by intervertebral disks

66

Intervertebral Disks

~Composed of gelatinous inner core (nucleus pulposus) and fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus)
~Compressed by upright posture
~May bulge to compress the spinal nerve as it passes out of the intervertebral foramen.
(“Slipped disk”, Radiculopathy, Pain, paraesthesias & loss of motor function if extreme)