Intro to organic chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to organic chemistry Deck (26):
1

Define: organic compound

all covalent compounds containing carbon

2

Why is carbon a versatile element?

Four valence electrons - bond with up to four atoms, and up to triple bonds.

3

How are most organic compounds formed?

From crude oil - type of fossil fuel formed from the effects of heat and organic matter in the crust

4

Define: hydrocarbon

Compounds made of only carbon and hydrogen atoms

5

Define: homologous series

A sequence of compounds that differ from the next by -CH2- which contain the same functional group and have the same general formula, resulting in similar chemical properties (eg. alkane, alkene, alkyne, haloalkane)

6

Define: alkane

Hydrocarbons containing only single carbon-carbon bonds

7

Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons - define: saturated hydrocarbon

Containing only single bonds

8

Are alkanes, alkenes and alkynes polar?

NO, therefore cannot dissolve in water.

9

Define: alkene

hydrocarbons containing atleast one double carbon-carbon bond

10

Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated. Define: unsaturated hydrocarbon

Contain atleast one double carbon-carbon bond

11

How are atoms arranged around the double bond in alkenes?

120 degrees.

12

Define: alkyne

hydrocarbons containing atleast one triple carbon-carbon bond.

13

How are atoms arranged around the alkyne?

LInearly - 180 degrees

14

Define: functional group

(Group of) atoms that give the molecule containing it a characteristic set of chemical properties

15

Define: haloalkane

alkane chains containing halogen atoms; #[...o][alkane]

16

Define: amine

alkane chains containing a NH2 functional group [alkane-e]-#-amine

17

Why do alcohols, amines have higher melting points than corresponding alkanes?

Bc N means hydrogen bonding can occur..

18

Define: alcohol

alknane chains containing a hydroxyl group (OH) [alkane-e]-#-ol

19

Describe the solubility of alcohol and carboxylic acids

Water soluble because it is polar and hydrogen bonding can occur; shorter = more soluble as more of the molecule is polar.

20

Define: carboxylic acids

Alkane chains containing a carboxyl group (COOH) [alkane-e]oic acid

21

How is the O-H-O bond in the carboxyl group arranged?

Trigonal planar

22

Why do carboxylic acids have higher melting points than alcohols?

There are 2 O's so more hydrogen bonds can occur

23

Define: dimer

Hydrogen bonding between two carboxylic acid molecules.

24

Define: esters

Formed in a condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol [alcohol chain named as a branch] [carboxylic acid without e]oate

25

Are esters polar?

YEs

26

WHy do esters have lower melting and boiling points than alcohols?

ALthough they do have hydroxyl groups, they are not free.