Flashcards in Intro to organic chemistry Deck (26):
Define: organic compound
all covalent compounds containing carbon
Why is carbon a versatile element?
Four valence electrons - bond with up to four atoms, and up to triple bonds.
How are most organic compounds formed?
From crude oil - type of fossil fuel formed from the effects of heat and organic matter in the crust
Compounds made of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
Define: homologous series
A sequence of compounds that differ from the next by -CH2- which contain the same functional group and have the same general formula, resulting in similar chemical properties (eg. alkane, alkene, alkyne, haloalkane)
Hydrocarbons containing only single carbon-carbon bonds
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons - define: saturated hydrocarbon
Containing only single bonds
Are alkanes, alkenes and alkynes polar?
NO, therefore cannot dissolve in water.
hydrocarbons containing atleast one double carbon-carbon bond
Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated. Define: unsaturated hydrocarbon
Contain atleast one double carbon-carbon bond
How are atoms arranged around the double bond in alkenes?
hydrocarbons containing atleast one triple carbon-carbon bond.
How are atoms arranged around the alkyne?
LInearly - 180 degrees
Define: functional group
(Group of) atoms that give the molecule containing it a characteristic set of chemical properties
alkane chains containing halogen atoms; #[...o][alkane]
alkane chains containing a NH2 functional group [alkane-e]-#-amine
Why do alcohols, amines have higher melting points than corresponding alkanes?
Bc N means hydrogen bonding can occur..
alknane chains containing a hydroxyl group (OH) [alkane-e]-#-ol
Describe the solubility of alcohol and carboxylic acids
Water soluble because it is polar and hydrogen bonding can occur; shorter = more soluble as more of the molecule is polar.
Define: carboxylic acids
Alkane chains containing a carboxyl group (COOH) [alkane-e]oic acid
How is the O-H-O bond in the carboxyl group arranged?
Why do carboxylic acids have higher melting points than alcohols?
There are 2 O's so more hydrogen bonds can occur
Hydrogen bonding between two carboxylic acid molecules.
Formed in a condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol [alcohol chain named as a branch] [carboxylic acid without e]oate
Are esters polar?