Flashcards in Intro to Psych / Reproductive Psych Deck (38):
What's Axis I?
All clinical diagnoses other than personality disorders and mental retardation.
What's Axis II?
Axis II is personality disorders and mental retardations. These are conditions that broadly affect all social interaction, and are considered to be permanent.
What's Axis III?
Medical conditions - hypertension, diabetes, hypothyroidism, etc.
What's Axis IV?
Psychosocial stressors: work stress, poverty, etc. etc.
What's Axis V?
Global assessment of function - ranging from 0 - 100. Less than 30 is immediately worrisome.
What is the definition of a personality disorder? (3 features)
A pattern of inner experience or behavior that...
- deviates from the norm
- is inflexible
- causes impairment or distress
Are personality disorders egosyntonic or egodystonic? What does this mean?
Personality disorders are generally considered egosyntonic - people aren't aware that they're abnormal.
(Contrast with someone with OCD, who might be very aware that their behavior isn't normal. That's egodystonic.)
What sort of personality disorders are in Cluster A?
"odd, bizzarre" distrustful, etc.
3 specific personality disorders in Cluster A and a brief definition?
Paranoid - distrustful, suspicious
Schizoid - detachment from social relationships
Schizotypic - eccentric, odd beliefs (incense, crystal, cat-ladies?)
What sort of personality disorders are in Cluster B?
4 specific personality disorders in Cluster B? give a brief description of each
Give a brief description of antisocial personality disorder?
Disregard for others, lack of remorse.
Brief description of borderline personality disorder?
Intense fear of abandonment and frequent self-harm.
Brief description of histrionic personality disorder?
Excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior.
Brief description of narcissistic personality disorder?
Grandiosity, lack of empathy, and intense need for admiration.
What sort of personality disorders are in Cluster C?
ones marked by anxiety and fear
Name 3 personality disorders in Cluster C?
Briefly describe avoidant personality disorder?
Social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy.
Briefly describe dependent personality disorder.
Submissive, clingy behavior.
Briefly describe obsessive compulsive personality disorder.
Preoccupation with order and perfection, difficulty delegating and making decisions.
What's "normal" picture drawing behavior, roughly, for young girls and boys?
Girls: more people, faces
Boys: more cars, scenes w/o people
(Editorial: I guess there's something too this... but I'm still unsure that this isn't mostly cultural)
What evidence from picture drawing do we have about when and what sets up sex-based differences in the brain? Is this an organizational or activational effect?
Girls exposed to more testosterone in utero (adrenal hyperplasia) draw more "masculine" pictures... and this doesn't seem to reverse itself.
This is an organizational effect.
How does the timing of presentation of diseases with sex-based predisposition vary between males and females?
Females: onset is usually at or after menarche
Males: conditions tend to be developmental
Are there differences in the ability of men and women to recognize non-verbal communication (facial expression, body language, etc.)?
Yes, women tend to be better at.
(still skeptical that this isn't based in gender culture)
What can you measure to determine exposure to testosterone in utero?
Ratio of length of 2nd digit to 4th digit.
Longer 4th digit is associated with greater exposure to testosterone in utero.
What affect does testosterone have on women's ability to recognize facial expression? Does it vary with exposure to exposure to testosterone in utero?
Testosterone decreases women's performance at facial identification.
This decrease in performance effect is only significant in women exposed to greater levels of testosterone in utero.
Does the testosterone - facial expression identification relationship represent an organizational or activational effect?
It's both. Giving testosterone to women previously exposed appears to unmask an organizational effect.
What's the take-home point about sex-based differences in serotonin / its receptors etc.?
It's different between men and women. Exactly how... is actively being researched.
What are 4 effects of estrogen on serotonin?
Overall effect: estrogen (ET) is pro-serotonergic (5-HT).
- ET increases transcription of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA (enzyme that makes serotonin).
- ET reduces clearance of 5-HT by SERT.
- ET increases density of 5-HT 2A receptor.
- ET decreases MAO levels, thereby increasing 5-HT levels.
What effect does serotonin have on dendritic spines?
It increases the amounts present.
How does progesterone affect GABA? Does this happen in men?
Progesterone is converted to allopregnanalone. Allopregnanalone acts like a barbituate / benzo to potentiate GABA activity, leading to increased cortical inhibition.
Yep, this happens in men too.
If progesterone potentiates GABA activity, why don't most women feel drugged (i.e. like they've taken benzos/barbituates) when progesterone spikes in the luteal phase / during pregnancy?
Normally, "the brain compensates" for this difference. Not compensating could partially explain why a minority of women get PMS / PMDD.
What is oxytocin involved with?
Aside from milk letdown and orgasm...
Increases "filial" behavior, love, friendship, monogamy, etc. etc.
What affect does oxytocin have on amygdala activation in response to viewing scary scenes / threatening faces?
Oxytocin decreases amygdala activation in response to these stimuli.
What are some criteria for PMDD?
Must appear with the beginning and disappear at the end of the luteal phase.
Must cause significant distress / impairment.
One of: depression / anxiety / irritability.
What's the range of onset for PMDD? Pattern of progression?
Onset can be any time from menarche to menopause.
Onset can be triggered by an "obstetric event."
Tends to get worse with age.
What's an effective treatment for PMDD?
SSRIs just taken during luteal phase.