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Flashcards in Intro to Research Methods Deck (49):
1

Empirical Approach

use of observations in collecting data

2

Four Keys to Empirical Approach

1. Why
2. Whom
3. How
4. When

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Hypothesis

statement of expected results (why)

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population

(whom) to observe
a. entire population
b. sample of population

5

measures

1. objective tests
2. interviews
3. direct observations of behavior
(how)

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Timing

(when)

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data

observations made by researchers resulting in either numbers or words

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Qualitative Research

interview data described in a narrative that points out themes and trends

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Experimental research

give treatments and observe if they cause changes in behavior

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Random assignment

gives each participant an equal chance of being in either group

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Classic simple experiment

researcher forms two groups and gives each group a different treatment

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Experimental group

group receiving treatment

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control group

group receiving no treatment

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true experiment

participants divided at random

15

Non-experimental studies

1. no treatments given
2. only observations of participants as they naturally exist

16

Most common type of non experimental study

survey or poll

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survey or poll types

1. interviews
2. questions

18

Attributes observed in survey studies

1. attitudes
2. beliefs
3. behaviors

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What is the purpose of an experiment?

to explore cause and effect relationships (i.e. treatments are given to see how they affect the participants)

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demographics

background characteristics such as socioeconomic status

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causal-comparative study

ex post facto study

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Causal-Comparative Study Essential Characteristics

1. observe and describe a current condition
2. look into the past to try to identify the possible causes of the condition

23

Best study to explore causality?

causal-comparative

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Causal-Comparative Research

look into the past for a cause of a current condition

25

Census

interview of all members of a population

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case study

study involving only one participant

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longitudinal research

repeatedly measure traits of the participants over a period of time in order to trace developmental trends

28

correlational research

interested in the degree of relationship among two or more quantitative variables

29

quantitative research

gather numerical data for statistical analysis

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Qualitative research

gather data to be analyzed through informed judgment to identify major and minor themes expressed by participants.

31

Historical research

by reviewing historical evidence, researchers are able to develop theories that may explain historical events and patterns and then lead to hypotheses

32

variable

a trait or characteristic with two or more categories

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Mutually exclusive categories

each respondent to a survey belongs to only one category

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exhaustive category

a variable must have a category for each respondent's opinion

35

categorical variables

naming variables

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Independent variable

stimulus or input that causes changes; predictor

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dependent variable

response or output; criterion

38

research hypothesis

prediction of the outcome of a study

39

directional hypotheses

researchers predict which group will be higher or have more of some attribute

40

nondirectional hypothesis

researcher says there will be a difference but does not predict the direction of the difference

41

Two options for a nondirectional hypothesis:

1. research purpose
2. research question

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Null hypothesis

1. statistical hypothesis
2. needs to be considered in analysis

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Conceptual definitions

does not indicate a precise concrete physical steps taken to identify the variable

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operational definition

defining a variable in terms of physical steps

45

replication

attempt to confirm the results of a study by conducting it again

46

Program Evaluation

report on the implementation and effectiveness of the program being funded

47

Four components of Program Evaluation

1. applied research
2. needs assessment
3. formative evaluation
4. summative evaluation

48

theory

unified explanation for discrete observations that might otherwise be viewed as unrelated or contradictory

49

Grounded Theory

1. in qualitative research
2. inductive
3. grounded in observations
4. evolutionary
5. regularly revised during observations