Flashcards in Understanding Statistics Deck (48):

1

## Descriptive Statistics

### summarizes data so they an easily be understood

2

## frequency distribution

### how data is distributed

3

## frequencies

### example of descriptive statistic

4

## percentages

### describe how many per hundred

5

## sampling errors

### possibility that a sample does not accurately reflect the population

6

## Inferential statistics

### help researchers make generalizations about the characteristics of populations from the study

7

## margin of error

### inferential statistic estimating possible sample error

8

## significance tests

###
1. family of inferential statistics which help decide whether differences in descriptive statistics are reliable

2. determine the probability that the null hypothesis is true

9

## parameters

### values from a census

10

## statistics

### for values from studies in which samples were examined

11

## samples yield...

### statistics

12

## populations yield...

### parameters

13

## Null hypothesis

### the observed difference was created by sampling error

14

## probability symbol

### p

15

## statistically significant

### when the researcher rejects the null hypothesis

16

## Scales of Measurement

###
1. Nominal

2. Ordinal

3. Interva

4. Ratio

17

## Nominal

###
1. naming

2. words

18

## Ordinal

###
1. ordering

2. ranking

19

## Interval

###
1. measures the amount of difference

2. equal distance between

3. no absolute zero

20

## Ratio

###
1. equal interval

2. absolute zero

21

## Frequencies symbol

### f

22

## number of cases symbol

### N

23

## univariate analysis

### analyzing how participants vary on only one variable

24

## bivariate analysis

### relationship between two nominal variables

25

## chi-square

###
1. usual test of the null hypothesis for differences between frequencies

2. x2

26

## degrees of freedom

###
1. df

2. not descriptive statistics

27

## Type I Error

### rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact a correct hypothesis

28

## Type II Error

### failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is in fact an incorrect hypothesis

29

## Frequency Polygon

### using data from a frequency distribution to construct a graph

30

## Normal curve

### smooth, bell-shaped curve

31

## skewed distributions

### a distribution that has a tail to one side

32

## positive skew

### tail to the right

33

## negative skew

### tail to the left

34

## mean

###
1. balance point in a distribution

2. average calculation

35

## median

### 1. middle score

36

## mode

### most frequently occurring score

37

## synonym of averages

### measures of central tendency

38

## Standard deviation

###
1. S or SD

2. variability

39

## variability

### amount by which participants differ from each other

40

## range

### highest score minus the lowest score

41

## Pearson Correlation Coefficient

###
1. most widely used coefficient

2. r

3. Pearson r

42

## direct relationship

###
1. positive relationship

2. both variables are either high or low

43

## inverse relationship

###
1. negative relationship

2. one variable is high and one variable is low

44

## coefficient of determination

###
1. r2

2. needed to represent correlation in perms of percentages

45

## t test

### used to test the null hypothesis regarding the observed difference between two means

46

## ANOVA

### analysis of variance

47

## one-way ANOVA

### single-factor ANOVA

48