Understanding Statistics Flashcards Preview

Research Methods in Counseling > Understanding Statistics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Understanding Statistics Deck (48):
1

Descriptive Statistics

summarizes data so they an easily be understood

2

frequency distribution

how data is distributed

3

frequencies

example of descriptive statistic

4

percentages

describe how many per hundred

5

sampling errors

possibility that a sample does not accurately reflect the population

6

Inferential statistics

help researchers make generalizations about the characteristics of populations from the study

7

margin of error

inferential statistic estimating possible sample error

8

significance tests

1. family of inferential statistics which help decide whether differences in descriptive statistics are reliable
2. determine the probability that the null hypothesis is true

9

parameters

values from a census

10

statistics

for values from studies in which samples were examined

11

samples yield...

statistics

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populations yield...

parameters

13

Null hypothesis

the observed difference was created by sampling error

14

probability symbol

p

15

statistically significant

when the researcher rejects the null hypothesis

16

Scales of Measurement

1. Nominal
2. Ordinal
3. Interva
4. Ratio

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Nominal

1. naming
2. words

18

Ordinal

1. ordering
2. ranking

19

Interval

1. measures the amount of difference
2. equal distance between
3. no absolute zero

20

Ratio

1. equal interval
2. absolute zero

21

Frequencies symbol

f

22

number of cases symbol

N

23

univariate analysis

analyzing how participants vary on only one variable

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bivariate analysis

relationship between two nominal variables

25

chi-square

1. usual test of the null hypothesis for differences between frequencies
2. x2

26

degrees of freedom

1. df
2. not descriptive statistics

27

Type I Error

rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact a correct hypothesis

28

Type II Error

failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is in fact an incorrect hypothesis

29

Frequency Polygon

using data from a frequency distribution to construct a graph

30

Normal curve

smooth, bell-shaped curve

31

skewed distributions

a distribution that has a tail to one side

32

positive skew

tail to the right

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negative skew

tail to the left

34

mean

1. balance point in a distribution
2. average calculation

35

median

1. middle score

36

mode

most frequently occurring score

37

synonym of averages

measures of central tendency

38

Standard deviation

1. S or SD
2. variability

39

variability

amount by which participants differ from each other

40

range

highest score minus the lowest score

41

Pearson Correlation Coefficient

1. most widely used coefficient
2. r
3. Pearson r

42

direct relationship

1. positive relationship
2. both variables are either high or low

43

inverse relationship

1. negative relationship
2. one variable is high and one variable is low

44

coefficient of determination

1. r2
2. needed to represent correlation in perms of percentages

45

t test

used to test the null hypothesis regarding the observed difference between two means

46

ANOVA

analysis of variance

47

one-way ANOVA

single-factor ANOVA

48

Five Considerations in Practical Significance

1. cost-benefit analysis
2. crucial difference
3. client acceptability
4. public and political acceptability
5. ethical and legal implications