Introduction Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction Deck (113):
1

Telencephalon

Cerebral hemispheres

Lateral ventricles

2

Diencephalon

Thalamus and hypothalamus

Ventricular lumen is 3

3

Mesencephalon

Midbrain

Mesencephalic aquaduct

4

Metencephalon

Pons and cerebellum

Fourth ventricle

5

Myelencephalon

Medulla

Fourth ventricle

6

Spinal cord

Spinal cord

Central canal

7

Ventricular system

Lumen of neural tube, this and meninges spaces are continuous

Fluid transport within the brain

Nutritive and protective function for brain, contain CSF for nutrition and ionic substance for brain so can properly function

8

Choroid plexus

Origination of CSF

9

Meninges

Three connective tissue membranes

Protection and support for the brain and spinal cord and substrate for vasculature

Dura, arachnoid, Pia

10

Arachnoid

Under lain by subarachnoid space where CSF and vessels travel

Delicate trabeculated middle layer

11

Spinal cord matter

White matter outside gray matter inside

12

Cerebral cortex matter

Gray matter outside and white inside

13

White matter

Composed of axons

White because lipoprotein myelin and reflects light

14

Tract

Bundle of functionally related axons in the CNS

When travel together = fasciculus or peduncle

Ex: corpus collosum

15

Commissure

Some facts cross to the contralateral side of brain

Any fiber bundle that crosses midline

16

5 commissures interconnecting telencephalon and diencephalon

corpus callosum, hippocampal commissure, rostral commissure, caudal commissure and habenular commissure

17

Afferent

Axons inputs that terminate as synapses

18

Efferent

Outputs, axons that leave that region and make synaptic terminations in another

Also called projection

19

Gray matter

Contains neuron cell bodies, dendrites and the fine branches of axons from sources along with synapses

20

Nuclei

Specific regions of gray matter contain these specific groups of neuron cell bodies

Only when found in subcortical locations, areas when in cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex

21

Neurophil

Background between groups of neurons

Where dendrites, axons and synapses are most dense

22

Analogies of white and gray matter

White matter= large highways
Gray matter= local neighborhoods
Neuron cell bodies= houses
Axons branches= streets
Neurophils= lawns
Dendrites= driveway

Cars are the action potential

23

Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord and communicates with rest of the body via sensory and motor nerves

24

Peripheral nervous system

Sensory and motor nerves

25

Nerve

Bundle of axons in the PNS

26

Tract definition

Bundle of axons in the CNS

27

Fascicles

Small tract

28

Nucleus vs. ganglion

Nucleus is a collection of nerve bodies in CNS

Ganglion is a collection of nerve cell bodies in PNS

29

Motor output

Neuromuscular junctions are dark and what communicates with muscle

30

Sensory input and motor output

Located in periphery but communicate with CNS

Input is afferent signals to the Brain and then sends out efferent signals

31

Interneurons

Process information that sensory afferent bringing in

Talking to different layers, lots of dendrites

Dendritic spines can receive lots of information and create synapses

Synapses have a thickening which is the active zone where axons communicate

32

Spinal cord

Segmented because receive lots of information from different parts of the brain

Axons entering dorsal roots of a segment convey sensory info

Axons exiting ventral roots of that segment terminate on muscles in the same area

33

Central canal

Remnant of lumen in neural tube

34

Spinal cord gray matter

Organized into dorsal horn containing interneurons that process incoming sensory info and enters via dorsal roots

Ventral horn contains motor neurons whose axons exit the ventral roots

35

Interneurons

All neurons in dorsal horn and most in ventral horn

36

Gray matter because

Mostly nuclei but speckled because contain some neurons

37

Descending tracts to the spinal cord

Any region of the spinal cord has these from cerebral cortex, midbrain and brainstem- travel in spinal cord white matter

38

Spinal cord white matter

Also contains ascending tracts conveying sensory info to the rostral brain

39

Brainstem

Medulla and pons also the midbrain and diencephalon

Cerebellum not a part

40

Medulla

Cervical spinal cord to the caudal margin of pontine fibers

Cranial nerves VI-XII originate in medulla

41

Ventral medulla

Pyramids, trapezoid bodies and caudal olive

42

Fourth ventricle

On dorsal medulla and pons

Opens from central canal at obex which is the caudal margin of medulla

Open forms rhomboid fossa

43

Medulla development

Roof plate of medulla and pons expands during development

Because of this fourth ventricle has thin roof of Pia and ependyma

44

Sulcus limitans

Dorsal medulla

Dorsolateral= sensory and ventromedial= motor

45

Caudal olive

Relay to cerebellum and pyramids

46

Trapezoid body

Band of axons that crosses the midline

Conveys auditory information to brainstem

47

Nerve functions

SSMMBMBSBBMM

48

Alar plate of medulla

Sensory

49

Basal plate of medulla

Motor

50

Sensory medulla

Gracile and cuneate nuclei

Cochlear and vestibular nuclei

Solitary nucleus

51

Gracile and cuneate nuclei

Spinal nucleus V

Somatic sensation

52

Cochlear and vestibular nuclei

Of VIII

hearing and balance

53

Solitary nucleus

Visceral sensation

54

Main motor structures of medulla

Hypoglossal, dorsal motor of X, ambiguous nucleus, salivatory nuclei, facial motor nucleus and abducens nuclei

55

Hypoglossal Nerve

CN XII

Tongue movement

56

Ambiguous nucleus

IX, X, XI

smooth muscle of pharynx and larynx

57

Salivatory nuclei

IX, X

Gland secretion

58

Reticular formation

Middle portion of medulla

Medulla to midbrain

Receiving sensory input and generating motor output and refinement

59

Pons

Pontine nuclei- cortical axons

Associated with fourth ventricle

Reticular formation

60

Middle cerebellar peduncles

Pontine neurons then project axons to cerebellum on opposite side via large white matter band that becomes this middle cerebellar peduncles

Fine movement modulation

61

CN V

Originates in the pons

62

Pontine decussation

Large axonal bundle bringing info from cortex communicating with spinal cord

63

Cerebellar nuclei

Source of outputs from the cerebellum

64

Cerebellar cortex

Receives wide array of input from sensory systems and generates fine motor responses

65

Peduncles

There are three that connect cerebellum to brain stem

66

Caudal cerebellar peduncles

Afferent from spinal cord and medulla

67

Middle cerebellar peduncle

Afferent from pontine nuclei

68

Rostral cerebellar peduncle

Supplies efferents from the deep cerebellar nuclei to the brainstem, midbrain and diencephalon

69

Midbrain

Thalamus from pons

Demarcated by caudal commissure

Mesencephalon

CN 3 and 4= oculomotor and trochlear

Ventricular lumen is the mesencephalic aquaduct

70

Periaqueductal gray

Surrounds the aquaduct

Coordinating defensive and attack behaviors

Reticular formation

71

Rostral and caudal colliculi

On midbrain roof, form dorsal bumps

Visual and auditory processing

72

Crus cerebri

Cerebral peduncles

Tracts that contain acorns that descend from cerebral cortex to the brainstem and spinal cord

73

Red nucleus and substantia nigra

Important motor nuclei in ventromedial tegmentum

74

Diencephalon

Thalamus dorsal and hypothalamus ventrally

Third ventricle

CN II- optic nerve

Forms part of pituitary gland

75

Pituitary gland formation

Pineal gland and infundibulum

76

Internal capsule

Forms massive neural highway of communication between thalamus and cerebral cortex

Ascending axons convey sensory info from thalamus to cortex, conscious sensation

Descending from cortex provide feedback to thalamus and continue into internal capsule, crus cerebri, pyramids and terminate in brainstem and spinal cord

77

Corticobulbar projections

Brainstem

78

Corticospinal projections

Spinal cord

79

Pineal recess

Outpocketing of 3rd ventricle extends into proximal pineal gland

80

Infundibular recess

Ventral extension of 3rd ventricle into infundibular recess stalk of pituitary gland

81

Lateral geniculate

Nucleus of the caudal thalamus is a prominent structure in visually dominant mammals

Receives axons from optic nerve

Midbrain

82

Medial geniculate

Nucleus related to the auditory system

Large in auditory dominant species and receives input from the caudal colliculus

83

Telencephalon

Continues after other regions

Cerebral cortex- neocortex, hippocampus and pyriform lobe

Subcortical nuclei of basal ganglia and amygdala

CN I- olfactory nerve

84

Cortex

Arranged in distinct layers

85

Rostral commissure

Boundary between diencephalon and subcortical telencephalon

86

Cerebral hemispheres

Bilateral unlike brainstem

So ventricular lumen is extended into left and right lateral ventricles

87

Internal capsule telencephalon

Communication for telencephalon

Passes between caudate and putamen nuclei of basal ganglia

Axons leave and supply cortical targets forming corona radiata

88

Cortical areas

Communicate with other areas in same hemisphere and in opposite

If cross hemispheres form corpus callosum= massive commissure

89

Gyri development

Grow in thickness as neurons multiply and form dendrites and synaptic connections with incoming axons

If thinner with fewer neurons remain sulci

Smaller mammalian tend to be ungyrated

Gyration increases cortex inside the skull

90

Neocortex, hippocampus and pyriform lobe

Outer region is gray matter, underlain is white matter

91

Neocortex

Frontal, parietal,occipital and temporal lobes

Axons in or out travel via internal capsule, major white matter tract and becomes cerebral peduncle on ventral surface of midbrain and pyramids on ventral medulla

Exhibits 6 cellular layers of neurons to optimize info processing capacity

92

Frontal lobe

Contains motor cortex

93

Parietal lobe

Processes somatosensory information

94

Occipital lobe

Visual information

95

Temporal lobe

Auditory processing

96

Prefrontal areas

Rostral to motor cortex mediate key aspects of personality including emotional response

97

Pyramidal cortical neurons

Vertically oriented dendritic trees and axons descend to enter white matter and travel

Excitatory= glutamate as neurotransmitter

98

Non pyramidial cortical neurons

Local interneurons, immediate vicinity

Inhibitory

GABA neurotransmitter

99

Hippocampus

Medial wall of telencephalon and lateral ventricle will separate it from the rest of the cortex

Dentate gurus

During development pulled into curbed trajectory

White matter bundle is the fornix, contains axons entering and leaving the hippocampus

100

Hippocampus commissure

Axons from one hippocampus to the other hemisphere

101

Fimbria

White matter associated with the cortex of hippocampal formation before being concentrated in the fornix

102

Fornix targets

Mammillary bodies of diencephalon

103

Hippocampus and memory

Place cells are neurons that fire only when the animal is in a particular location

Direct input from the entorhinal cortex

Fire at spaced locations- grid cells

104

Spatial location and reward

Communication between hippocampus and ventral striatum

105

Short term memory

Represented in hippocampus, long term is cerebral cortex

Memory consolidation during sleep

106

Pyriform lobe

Rhinal fissure separates neocortex dorsal from pyriform lobe

Devoted to olfactory info from olfactory bulbs via lateral olfactory tract

3 cell layers

107

Rostral commissure

Functions like the corpus collasum and hippocampal commissure for brain regions below rhinal fissure

Interconnects lobes

108

Subcortical telencephalon

Basal ganglia is the largest associated

Amygdala

109

Basal ganglia

Striatum- caudate, putamen and nucleus accumbens

Pallidum- globus pallidus

Bisected by internal capsule

Striatum receives excitatory input from cerebral cortex and modulatory dopaminergic input from substantia nigra to midbrain

110

Parkinson's

Disrupts flow from thalamus to cortex, globus pallidus disrupted

111

Amygdala

Survival reactions

112

Multimodal cortical areas

Parietal, frontal and temporal

Respond to variety of stimuli

Can either be multi to Unimodal or multi to multi

113

Working memory

Operates in parietal and frontal areas

Damage to one region results in hypoactivation of other regions due to interconnectivity- diaschisis