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Flashcards in Introduction Deck (38):
1

Originated from Greece and the Oriental (Chinese)

Philosophy

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Philosophy deals with

a. finding the absolute truth
b. Common Sense

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Human beings are shit because

1. We don't ask big Questions.
2. We are vulnerable to errors and Common Sense.
3. We are mentally confused.
4. We have muddled ideas of what make us happy
5. We panic and lose perspective

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“know yourself ”
- What I know is, I know nothing
- one of the first philosophers

Socrates

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the information
given to you

Knowledge

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the private experiences you accumulated

Wisdom

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Ways of Studying Philosophy:

1. Chronologically (Ancient [made out of elements], Medieval [time of the Church], Modern, Contemporary)
2. Topic / Themes (Metaphysics, Epistemology, Logic, Aesthetic, Ethics, and other Specialized Topic) (What certain category should
it fall unto?)
3. Style / Approach (Analytic [Scientific], Continental [Literature], Social / Political)

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Father of Modern Philosophy
- Cartesian Plane

Rene Descartes

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Being is

Existing

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Branches of Philosophy

Metaphysics
Epistemology
Ethics
Logic

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- questions of reality
- explaining fundamental nature of being and the world that
encompasses it, although the term is not easily defined

Metaphysics

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Deals with our concept of knowledge, how we learn and what we
know
nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between
truth, belief, perception and theories of justification

Epistemology

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knowledge comes before
experience

A Priori

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comes with experiences,

A Posteriori

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knowledge that does not come from experience, but
we experience it

Synthetic priori

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• Ultimately, what is there?
• What is it like?

Metaphysics

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(1) questions of the best way to live
(2) concerning the questions of whether this question can be
answered

Ethics

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associated with the idea of morality, and the two are often interchangeable
What makes things right, right, and what makes things wrong, wrong

Ethics

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Types of Ethics

1. Meta ethics
2. Normative
3. Applied
4. Aesthetic

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nature of the ethical thought, such as the origins of good and bad, and origins of other comparative words of various ethical systems, whether there are absolute ethical truths, and how such truths could be known.

Metaethics

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- how one ought to act, and what the right course of action is.

Normative Ethics

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step into real world ethical practice, such
as questions of whether or not abortion is correct
- concerned with questions of how ought to act, and what the right
court action is.
- more on the Contemporary issues

Applies Ethics

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A branch of philosophy dealing with nature of art, beauty, and
taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty

Aesthetic`

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- Logic is the study of the principles of correct easonging

Reasoning

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Types of logic

Formal
informal
Symbolic
Mathematical

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Tripartite soul

RATIONAL / LOGICAL - seeks truth and swayed by
facts and arguments
SPIRITED / EMOTIONAL - how feelings fuel your
actions
APPETITIVE / PHYSICAL DESIRES - Drives you to
eat, have sex, and protect yourself

27

- Analytical philosophy

Bertrand Russel

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- General to the Specific
- the truth of the premises must lead to the truth of the conclusion

Deductive Argument

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- fair amount of general info that will give a conclusion
- using past experience to make future predictions

Inductive Argument

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Premise 1 : Anna told you she failed her physics midterms
Premise 2 : Anna hasn’t been in physics class since your teacher
graded the exams
Premise 3 : Anna has been in Sociology Class, which meets right
after physics
Conclusion : Anna dropped Physics

Inductive Argument

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Premise 1: All human are mortal
Premise 2 : Socrates is a human
Conclusion: Socrates is Mortal

Deductive Argument

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German word for primary substance

Urstoff

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Boundless, changing, unknown

Apeiron

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Happiness

Eudaimonia

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Arete

Virtue

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Alethea

arriving on a certain truth

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Anamesis

Remembering

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Greek word for primary substance

Aether