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Flashcards in Introduction to Dermatology Deck (38):
1

What is the biggest organ in the body?

The skin

2

How many skin conditions make up 70% of all skin disease in the Uk?

9

3

What are these 9 skin conditions?

Acne
Atopic eczema
Benign tumours/lesions
Contact Dermatitis
Leg Ulcers
Psoriasis
Skin Cancer
Skin Infections
Viral Warts

4

What are the 3 big layers of the skin (external to internal)?

Epidermis
Dermis
Fat and connective tissue (sub. cut.)

5

What are the 5 layers of the epidermis (external to internal)?

Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Granular cell layer
Spinous cell layer
Stratum basale/Basal cell layer

6

What main structures does the dermis contain?

Blood vessels
Nerves
Hair follicles
Lymphatics
Glands (sweat, apocrine, sebaceous)

7

What does the skin act as a barrier to?

Microbes
Chemicals
UV light
Antigens
Water loss

8

What does the skin use to regulate temperature?

Sweat glands
Changes in blood flow

9

What biochemical functions do sweat glands have?

Vitamin D synthesis
Androgen pro-hormone conversion

10

Whatr other functions does skin have?

Protection of internal structures
Sensation
Immune surveillance
Communication

11

What 5 Ds are important in the impact of skin disease?

Disability, discomfort, depression, disfigurement, and death

12

What symptoms can skin disease cause?

Pain
Itching
Discomfort
Redness
Bleed
Weeping
Crusting
Blister
Burn

13

What can be used to measure the impact of skin disease? (2)

Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)
Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI)

14

What features are important in taking a dermatology history WRT patient demographics?

Age
Ethnicity

15

What FH is important to ask in a dermatology history?

Inherited skin diseases
Communicable infection within family unit
Previous exposure to specific skin diseases (eg VZV)

16

What social history is important to take in a dermatology setting?

Infection risk
Occupation
Recent travel
Smoking and alcohol

17

What equipment is used to exmine the skin?

A dermatoscope (plus your eyes and hands)
A good light
Measuring tape
Woods light

18

What is important in a history for a solitary lesion?

Age of pt
Duration
Change over time (size, shape, colour)
Hx of similar lesion and treatment
FH of skin cancer

19

Where should be examined in a dermatology consultation?

All over - where the lesion is,plus all the skin including nails, scalp, behind ears, and inside mouth

20

What distribution may a skin problem manifest in?

Widespread/localised
Grouped/scattered
Symmetrical or not
Pattern (eg dermatomal)
Sparing

21

What is the Koebner phenomenon?

Typically associated with psoriasis and a few other skin conditions, a patch of skin initially unnvolved develops lesions due to cutaneous trauma

i.e. i scratch my skin, loads of psoriatic lesions form where my nails went

22

Apart from position, shape and size, how else should a solitary lesion be described?

Surface texture
Consistency
Fixed/Immobile
Warm/pulsatile

23

What is a wheal?

A very itchy, evanescent, circumscribed area of redness/oedema; characteristic of hypersensitivity and/or anaphylactic reaction

24

What is the difference between an erosion and an ulcer?

The depth - an erosion is more superficial, the ulcer penetrates the skin deeper

25

What is a fissure?

Where thick patches of skin affected by psoriasis crack

26

What is an excoriation?

Skin abrasions, usually superficial, due to scratching of the skin

27

Which layer of the skin varies the most? How?

The stratum corneum - it varies in thickness according to where on the body it is

28

How big is a papule?

Less than 5mm across

29

How big is a ndoule?

5-10mm

30

What is a vesicle? What is a bulla?

Respectively, a small and a large water blister

31

What is a pus-filled vesicle called?

A pustule

32

What is telangiectasia?

A threaded vein

33

What is alopecia?

Hair loss/thinning

34

What is hairiness known as?

Hirsutism

35

What are striae?

Stretch marks

36

What is pruritus?

Itching

37

What is a macule?

A non palpable area of discolouration

38

What is a patch?

A macule over 2cm