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Flashcards in Introduction to Microbiology Deck (55)
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1

Name two advantages of a bacterial cell being small.

Increases rate of nutrients and waste in and out/ Higher growth rate for faster adaptation.

2

What are the typical structures of a prokaryotic cell?

Cell wall (plus flagella, pilli), Cell membranes, Cytoplasm, Nuclear region.

3

What is in the cytoplasm?

Enzymes, regulatory proteins and protein synthesis machinery

4

What are the phospholipid membrane proteins functions?

Transport of nutrients, energy generation, secretion, synthesis of peptidoglycan, regulatory proteins

5

What are the two groups bacteria can be divided into based upon cell walls?

Gram- positive or gram- negative

6

What is meant by gram- positive?

The bacteria has retained the crystal violet-iodine complex

7

What is the difference in cell walls of gram positive and negative?

Gram positive- thick peptidoglycan layer, 1 cell membrane. Gram negative- inner and outer membrane and thin peptidoglycan layer

8

Name an example of gram- positive/negative bacteria

+ Streptococcus spp
- E.coli

9

What is peptidoglycan made from?

polysaccharide backbone of two sugar derivatives linked by peptide bridge. N-acetylglucosamine/ N-acetylmuramic acid.

10

Why is acid-fast staining used?

Acid fast microorganisms do not stain well

11

What are exampled of acid fast organisms?

M.Bovis and M.Tuberculosis

12

Why do acid fast bacteria not stain well?

Mycolic acid and lipids in the cell wall which interfere.

13

What is a mycoplasma?

Bacteria with no cell wall

14

What does a mycoplasma require externally?

Cholesterol, amino acids and fatty acids

15

What is the space between two membranes in a gram negative bacteria called?

Periplasm- where the peptidoglycan is

16

What is lipopolysaccharide?

an endotoxin which causes fever (pyrogenic) on the very outer layer of a gram negative bacteria

17

What are the three parts to a lipopolysaccharide?

O-antigen, core polysaccharide, Lipid A

18

What are cell surface structures?

Flagella, fimbriae and pilli, capsules.

19

What is the function of a flagella?

Motility of the cell

20

What are the function of fimbriea and pilli?

The hair like structures which attach to surfaces and for sexual reproduction by transferring plasmids

21

What is a capsule?

a discrete layer of polysaccharides outside the cell

22

What is a slime layer?

A less discrete structure which embeds the cell for attachment

23

What are phenotypic ways of classification?

Staining, cell morphology- cocci, oxygen requirements, culture properties, colony morphology

24

What are genetic ways of classification?

DNA based, rRNA sequences

25

Why can bacteria be incorrectly classified?

Horizontal gene transfer

26

What is mycology?

The study of fungi

27

What is a disease called caused by a fungus?

Mycoses

28

Are fungi eukaryotes or prokaryotes?

Eukaryotic

29

Are fungi aerobes?

All fungi are aerobes some are strict aerobes

30

What is the optimum range of temperature for fungi growth?

20-30 degrees C