Issue of acculturation - reference to Wechsler tests Flashcards Preview

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1

Acculturation is a critically important and yet...

Little understood component of ability assessment and measurement

2

When test developers norm tests they often do so under socially constructed categories such as what?

Race and ethnicity

3

When test developers norm tests they do so under socially constructed categories such as what race and ethnicity. What do Ortiz and colleagues (2006) point out in relation to this?

These categories do little in achieving accurate representation along the relevant and important dimensions that actually affect test performance.

Neither skin colour nor an individual's ethnic heritage affects test performance directly.

It is the individual's developmental background, particularly with respect to linguistic and acculturative experiences, that influences the manner in which the individual responds on standardized norm referenced tests.

4

Neither skin colour nor an individual's ethnic heritage affects test performance directly. Rather...

It is the individual's developmental background, particularly with respect to linguistic and acculturative experiences, that influences the manner in which the individual responds on standardized norm referenced tests.

5

Controlling for racial or ethnic differences via stratified random sampling may provide a desired measure of face validity for the norm sample, but what is the problem with it?

It only ensures that proportionate numbers of individuals from such backgrounds are included in the normative sample. It does not ensure that individuals from such backgrounds have comparable experiences particularly as related to linguistic development and acculturative experiences

6

When an individual's acculturation differs from those on whom a test was standardized, are the use of the norms of that test as an index for evaluating that individual's current level of performance or predicting future performance appropriate?

When an individual's acculturation differs from those on whom a test was standardized, the use of the norms of that test as an index for evaluating that individual's current performance or for predicting future performance may be inappropriate

7

Who conducted a study examining the relationship between acculturation and WAIS-III and WMS-III scores?

Harris et al. (2003)

8

In a study examining the relationship between acculturation and WAIS-III and WMS-III scores, what did Harris and colleagues (2003) do?

- Analyzed demographic questionnaire data collected as part of the WAIS-III and WMS-III standardization studies (Tulsky & Zhu, unpublished)

- From the sample of 3050 examinees, the authors selected 150 examinees who reported being born outside of the US, and that they spoke English fluently as a second language

- 3 variables related to acculturation were created from the data obtained on the questionnaire, these were: language preference, US experience, and US education

9

In a study examining the relationship between acculturation and WAIS-III and WMS-III scores, Harris and colleagues (2003) analyzed demographic questionnaire data collected as part of the WAIS-III and WMS-III standardization studies - who conducted the WAIS-III and WMS-III standardization studies?

Tulsky and Zhu, unpublished

10

How many examinees took part in the WAIS-III and WMS-III standardization studies?

3050

11

Of the 3050 examinees who took part in the the WAIS-III and WMS-III standardization studies, how many were used for the acculturation study?

150

12

For this study, 3 variables related to acculturation were created from the data obtained on the questionnaire. Whereas traditional analyses of demographic variables have focused on age, education, and gender, these new variables attempted to...

further contribute to considerations of relevant demographic and language or acculturation-related variables.

13

The first variable “Language Preference” was developed to...

index self-reported language preference for speaking, thinking, reading, and writing.

14

The first variable “Language Preference” was developed to index self-reported language preference for speaking, thinking, reading, and writing. This variable provided an index of the examinee’s what?

self-reported preference and comfort level in using English versus another language.

15

The first variable “Language Preference” was developed to index self-reported language preference for speaking, thinking, reading, and writing. This variable provided an index of the examinee’s self-reported preference and comfort level in using English versus another language. What was it not?

It was not a measure of language proficiency.

16

How was the second variable, US experience, calculated?

By dividing the number of years residing in the US by the total age of the examinee

17

The second variable, US experience was calculated by dividing the number of years residing in the US by the total age of the examinee. Why was this variable important?

This variable was important as the length of residence in the US correlates with acculturation (Marin et al., 1987), and in some circumstances may act as a proxy for acculturation.

18

What was the third variable and what did it provide?

The 3rd variable was US education and it provided a total value for educational experience in the US

19

What kind of analyses did Harris and colleagues (2003) conduct? Broadly what did they find?

They conducted a series of multiple regression analyses finding that language preference and acculturation contribute to some aspects of cognitive performance.

20

With the exception of the X, all of the acculturation variables accounted for significant variance above and beyond the more traditional demographic variables of age and education.

Visual Memory Composite

21

With the exception of the Visual Memory Composite, all of the acculturation variables accounted for significant variance above and beyond the more traditional demographic variables of age and education. Why is this finding particularly striking?

. This finding is particularly striking considering the individuals selected in this sample were representative of examinees for whom clinicians struggle least with decision making regarding test selection and interpretation. Specifically, they appear to the examiner to be acculturated and proficient in English, and they appear similar to the typical standardization sample for tests developed in the US.

22

This finding is particularly striking considering the individuals selected in this sample were representative of examinees for whom clinicians struggle least with decision making regarding test selection and interpretation. Specifically, they appear to the examiner to be acculturated and proficient in English, and they appear similar to the typical standardization sample for tests developed in the US.

What should this alert clinicians to?

The importance of exploring these acculturation variables with all examinees prior to cognitive and intellectual assessment

23

Unfortunately, guidance on how to treat culturally and linguistically diverse subgroups as individuals, and how to account for individual characteristics that may interact with difference testing situations are still lacking. What is the result of this?

The result is that current researchers continue to examine a multitude of issues related to test performance in studies that use groups formed exclusively on racial or ethic categories.

24

Current researchers continued to examine a multitude of issues related to test performance in studies that use groups formed exclusively on racial or ethnic categories. What is the problem with this?

When constructed in such a manner, such studies lack generalizability and do not inform practice in any substantive way and effectively flawed in methodology.

25

Current researchers continue to examine a multitude of issues related to test performance in studies that use groups formed exclusively on racial or ethnic categories (e.g., Hispanic). When constructed in such a manner, such studies lack generalizability and do not inform practice in any substantive way and effectively flawed in methodology.

What do future studies need to do?

In order to advance our scientific understanding, future empirical investigations need to begin to acknowledge the issue of acculturation and incorporate participant grouping more representative of the true linguistic and cultural differences that play pivotal roles in how an individual performs on a test.