Flashcards in Adding a test of achievement to compliment your IQ test Deck (19)
Structure for this question?
1. Ability vs achievement assessment (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2005)
2. 3 vital pieces of information about the test that could go into my decision.
What are the 3 pieces of information I am going to describe in my answer?
1. Culture and experience
3. Incremental Validity
What is the first step
Distinguish between ability and achievement
Ability is the X, while achievement is the Y
Ability is the cause, while achievement is the effect
What is ability?
Ability refers to a latent construct (i.e., one's potential) that cannot be directly observed but is relatively stable across time and situations. It represents individual differences in capacities and propensities.
What is achievement?
Achievement refers to one's accomplishments. For example, an intelligence test that is a test of achievement will need to sample the appropriate fund of knowledge that it seeks to test
Why would standardization be an important component to consider?
So that I can compare the scores across measures (Strauss)
Within standarization, what two things would I be looking for specifically?
I would want the IQ and achievement test to have:
1. Raw scores that were normally distributed in the population to allow for comparison between standard scores
2. been standardized with the same/similar samples to allow for comparison between the standardized scores
Why is it important that the raw scores be normally distributed in the population to allow for comparison between standard scores?
Because non-normal population distributions prevent standardized scores from reflecting the actual population rank (Strauss)
Why is it important that both tests have been standardized with the same samples?
Because if they are normed on a very different population then you cannot consider the standard score to be representative of your group (consider the 50th percentile score on a memory test normed with university students vs with older adults)
Why would incremental validity be an important component to consider?
Because the I would want to know that the addition of the achievement test is improving the prediction of the clinically relevant criterion above and beyond want the IQ test alone is doing (Hunsley, 2003)
When is incremental validity particularly important?
When a new scale is created as an addition to an existing multiscale inventory
Would I want to look at the incremental validity of the achievement test over alternative measures available to assess the same construct?
In considering incremental validity, I would would want make sure that the data from the IQ and the achievement tests shared minimal method variance - why?
If tests have shared systematic error, then their association will increase, which could look like convergent evidence of validity and increase confidence in judgement
In considering incremental validity, I would would want make sure that the data from the IQ and the achievement tests shared minimal method variance. What else would I want to make sure of?
That the achievement test scores were derived from independent sources of information.
Why would I want to be sure that the achievement test scores were derived from independent sources of information?
o Accuracy of predictions increases when data sources provide nonredundant information
o Nonoverlapping sources of data are required for improving the accuracy of clinical decisions
Why would I need to consider culture and experience in adding the achievement test to my battery?
Because the IQ test score needs to predict achievement in a relevant domain
Do test scores have large differences between ethnic and racial groups
Yes, there are o Large differences between ethnic and racial groups on test scores due to differential opportunities and experiences