Flashcards in IT Operations - Data Structures, Software and Databases Deck (7):
Data structures in accounting systems
All info and instructions used in IT are executed in binary code - 0s and 1s
1) Bit - individual 0 or 1
2) Byte - group, usually 8 bits, that are used to represent alphabetic and numeric characters. ASCII and EBCIDIC 2 most common
3)Field - group of bytes identifying a characteristic of an entity - date, text,number are common
4)Record - group of related fields describing an individual instance of entity (customer, specific invoice)
5) File - collection of records for one specific entity (tables)
6)Databae - set of logically related files
Except for "file" the words get longer as the units get bigger:
Computer software in 3 categories
1) Systems software - Programs that run the computer and support system
B)database mangement system (DBMS)
C)Data communication software
2 Programming Languages
1. All software is created using programming languages. They consist of sets of instructions and a syntax that determines how the instructions can be put together. Types and examples of programming languages include:
a. High-level, general purpose languages, such as the C programming language.
b. Object-oriented languages such as C++, which are used to design modular, reusable software.
c. Integrated development environments, such as Java, which provide templates that can be used to automatically generate code.
d. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), a tagging language, discussed in the lesson on the internet.
e. Scripting languages, such as PERL or Python, which are used to add functionality to webpages.
f. Fourth-generation programming languages, which are often used in database systems. An example command might be, "FIND ALL RECORDS WHERE ZIPCODE = 40703".
g. Low-level languages (e.g., assembler or machine) have code that is similar to a computer's instruction set architecture.
3 Application Software
Diverse group of end-user programs that accomplish user objectives
Organizations should have policies and procedures to ensure they comply with software copyright law
Set of logically related files; characterizes by the way data relationships are established and the way it is implemented across organization